John KAYE, Ecclesiastical History of the Second and Third Centuries (1845). Contents. pp. xxix-xxxiv.


CONTENTS.
----------------

Preface to the Third Edition . . . . . . . . . . v
覧覧覧覧 Second Edition . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . xxxv

CHAPTER I.

ON TERTULLIAN AND HIS WRITINGS.

Jerome's account of Tertullian ......... 1
Whether Tertullian was ever a Presbyter? . . . . . . .3
Whether a Presbyter at Rome or at Carthage?...... 4
Whether originally a Gentile? ......... 5
His adoption of Montanism .......... 6
Account of Montanus from Eusebius ........ 7
覧覧覧覧覧覧 from Epiphanius ....... 10
覧覧 of the peculiar opinions of Montanus ...... 12
覧覧 of his pretensions. The variation in Mosheim's language on this subject ............. 13
His Discourses probably committed to writing ...... 20
The notion that the Apostles did not publicly teach the Doctrine of the Gospel in its full perfection ......... 20
This notion supported by the authority of Clemens Alexandrinus . . 22 
Causes of Tertullian's secession from the Church . . . . .24
Importance of his Writings .......... 27
Unsuccessful attempts to arrange them in chronological order . . .27 
Date of the Tract de Pallio .......... 27
覧 of the first Book against Marcion ....... 29
覧 of the Tract de Monogamia, and the two Books ad Nationes . . 30 
Difficulty of ascertaining what works were, and what were not, written before Tertullian's secession from the Church ..... 30 |xxx
The Tract de Poenitentia ... ...... 32
覧覧 de Oratione . . . . . . . . . . .32
覧覧覧 de Baptismo ........... 32
The two Tracts ad Uxorem .......... 34
The Tract ad Martyres .......... 31
覧覧 de Patientia ........... 35
覧覧 adversus Judaeos .......... 35
覧覧 de Praescriptione Haereticorum ....... 35
覧覧 adversus Hermogenem ......... 36
The Apology ............. 36
The two Books ad Nationes .......... 38
The Tract de Testimonio Animae ......... 38
覧覧 ad Scapulam ........... 39
Tracts containing decisive marks of Montanism. De Corona, de Anima, de Virginibus velandis, de Resurrectione Carnis, against Praxeas, Books I. III. IV. and V., against Marcion, the Tracts de Fuga in Persecutione, de Monogamia, de Jejuniis, de Pudicitia . . . .39
Mistake of Gibbon respecting the Tract de Corona ..... 40
The second Book against Marcion ........ 41
The Tract de Carne Christi .......... 41
Scorpiace ............. 41
The Tract against the Valentinians ........ 42
覧覧 de Spectaculis .......... 42
覧覧 de Idololatria .......... 43
The first Book de Cultu Foeminarum ........ 43
The Tract de Exhortatione Castitatis ........ 43
Classification of Tertullian's works ........ 43
Works not now extant ........... 45
The Tract de Paradiso ........... 45
覧覧 de Spe Fidelium .......... 45
The six Books de Ecstasi, and the seventh against Apollonius . . .45 
The Tract against the Apelliaci ......... 46
覧- 覧 against Hermogenes, de Censu Animae ...... 46
覧覧 de Vestibus Aaron ......... 46
覧覧 ad Amicum Philosophum ........ 46
Tracts, the titles of which appear in the Codex Agobardi . . . .46
Learning, style, and Latinity of Tertullian ....... 47
Examination of Semler's objections to the genuineness of Tertullian's writings ............51

CHAPTER II.

ON THE EXTERNAL HISTORY OF THE CHURCH.

The wide diffusion of Christianity in Tertullian's day . .... 67 
Whether to be ascribed to the exercise of miraculous powers . . .72 
Instances of the exercise of miraculous powers recorded by Tertullian . 77 
Instances of visions ........... 77 |xxxi 
The miracle of the thundering Legion ........ 78
The proposals of Tiberius to receive Christ among the Deities of Rome . 82 
Two causes of the rapid propagation of Christianity, assigned by Mosheim 裕ranslations of the new Testament, and Apologies composed in defence of Christianity .......... 84
Concerning the Laws which applied to the Christians as a Sect. . .85 
Sketch of the Apology ........... 89
Gibbon's remarks on the early Apologists for Christianity . . . . 100
Sufferings of the early Christians, and honours annexed to martyrdom . . . 103
Account of the Tract de Fuga in Persecutione ..... 111
覧覧覧覧覧覧 ad Martyres ....... 113
覧of the Scorpiace . . . . . . 113
General observations on the subject of martyrdom ..... 115
Allusion to the duration of Christ's ministry ......119
覧覧 to the Census of Augustus, and our Lord's descent from David through Mary .......... 121
覧覧 to the miraculous darkness at the Crucifixion .... 121
Condition of the Jews in Tertullian's time ....... 122
Appendix to Chapter II. containing extracts from the late Dr. Hey's unpublished Lectures on Ecclesiastical History ..... 122

CHAPTER III.

ON THE STATE OF LETTERS AND PHILOSOPHY.

Account of the Tract de Testimonio Animae ....... 132
Remarks on the prevalent disposition to undervalue the argument a posteriori ............ 138
Account of the Treatise de Anima ........ 144
Tertullian's opinions respecting Angels and Daemons ..... 160

CHAPTER IV.

ON THE GOVERNMENT OF THE CHURCH.

Tertullian's account of the Christian assemblies . . . . . .109
On the distinction between the Clergy and Laity ..... 170
Tertullian's notion of the origin of the Church ...... 173
On the distinction of Orders among the Clergy ...... 175
Tertullian's account of the origin of the Episcopal Office and of its Duties ............. 176
On the independence of the Apostolic Churches ...... 178
On the titles Pontifex Maximus, Episcopus Episcoporum, Papa . . . 181 
On the Order of Readers (Lectores) and of Widows ..... 183
On Synods or Councils ........... 185
On the distinction between Catechumeni and Fideles ..... 186
On the Penitential Discipline of the Church ...... 190 |xxxii 
On the distinction between Mortal and Venial Sins ..... 193 
Silence of Tertullian on the subject of Auricular Confession . . .194 
Christian Authors mentioned by Tertullian ...... 194

CHAPTER V.

ON THE DOCTRINE OF THE CHURCH.

The consideration of the first and second Articles of our Church deferred 198 
Article III. Christ's descent into hell ....... 199
覧覧 IV. The Resurrection of Christ ....... 202
Account of the Tract de Carne Christi ....... 202
覧覧覧覧 Tract de Resurrectione Carnis ...... 208
Article V. deferred ........... 219
覧覧 VI. The sufficiency of Holy Scriptures for salvation . . . 225 
On the Tradition of the Church ......... 228
Tertullian's testimony to the Canon of Scripture ..... 232
覧覧覧 account of the Septuagint Version ...... 233
覧覧覧覧覧覧 of the Book of Enoch ....... 234
On the expression Authenticae Literae ........ 235
覧覧 Epistle to the Hebrews ......... 237
Travels of Paul and Thecla ......... 237
Whether the Canon of Scripture was determined by the authority of Councils? ............ 23S
Remarks on the work entitled Palaeoromaica ...... 238
On the words Instrumentum, Testameutum, Digesta..... 240
覧 title of the Epistle to the Ephesians ...... 240
Quotations not found in Scripture ........ 241
Article VII. Of the Old Testament . . . . . . . .242
覧覧 VIII. The three Creeds ........ 243
覧覧 IX. Original Sin .......... 246
Two strange opinions of Tertullian ........ 250
Article X. Of Free-will .......... 250
覧覧 XI. Of the Justification of Man ...... .253
覧 XII. Of Good Works ......... 255
覧 XIII. Of Works before Justification ...... 256
覧覧 XIV. Of Works of Supererogation ...... 256
覧覧 XV. Of Christ alone without Sin . . . . . . . 257
覧覧 XVI. Of Sin after Baptism ........ 257
覧覧 XVII. Of Predestination and Election ..... 259
覧覧 XVIII. Of obtaining Eternal Salvation only in the name of Christ ........... 262
覧覧 XIX. Of the Church ......... 262
覧覧 XX. Of the Authority of the Church ...... 262
覧覧 XXI. Of the Authority of General Councils .... 2S2
覧覧 XXII. Of Purgatory ......... 262
Pearson's notion respecting the perpetual Virginity ..... 265
Article XXIII. Of Ministering in the Congregation .... 266   |xxxiii 
Article XXIV. On speaking in the Congregation in a known tongue . 268
覧覧 XXV. Of the Sacraments ........ 271
覧覧 XXVI. Of the unworthiness of the Ministers, which hindereth not the effect of the Sacraments ...... 272
The consideration of Articles 27, 28. 30. deferred ..... 273
Article XXXII. Of the Marriage of Priests ...... 274
覧覧 XXXIII. Of excommunicate Persons, &c. ..... 274
覧覧 XXXIV. Of the Traditions of the Church . . . . .275
覧覧 XXXV. XXXVI. omitted ......... 275
覧覧 XXXVII. Of Civil Magistrates ....... 276
覧覧 XXXVIII. Of Christian Men's Goods, &c. . . . . .276
覧覧 XXXIX. Of a Christian Man's Oath ...... 277
On the Millennium ........... 277
On the final Salvation of all men ......... 278
On the approaching end of the World . ...... .279
Examination of Mosheim's Chapter on the Doctrine of the Church in the second century ........... 280
Examination of M. Barbeyrac's strictures on Tertullian, in his Trait de la Morale des P鑽es ........... 289

CHAPTER VI.

ON THE CEREMONIES USED IN THE CHURCH.

Forms observed in Prayer .......... 308
Account of the Tract de Oratione ......... 308
Whether the Public Prayers were extemporaneous? . . . . .312
Sunday, or the Lord's Day, and the Sabbath, kept as days of rejoicing . 313 
Christmas Day, Easter, and Whitsuntide ....... 314
Commemoration of the days on which the Martyrs suffered . . . 315 
Account of the Tract de Jejuniis ......... 315
Fasts observed in the Church ......... 317
覧覧覧覧 by the Montanists ........ 319
Observations on "Fasting .......... 320
覧覧 覧on the Monastic mode of life ....... 323
On the Agape, or Feast of Charity ........ 325
On Vigils, and Processions ..... ..... 326
Article XXVII. Account of Tertullian's Tract de Baptismo . . . 327 
On the forms observed in Baptism . . . . . . . 329
On the Baptism of John .......... 332
Whether Tertullian was acquainted with the Jewish Baptism of Proselytes? ............. 334
Whether the Apostles were baptized? ....... 336
On the necessity of Baptism to Salvation ....... 337
On Heretical Baptism, and the propriety of rebaptizing .... 338
On the Baptism of Martyrdom ......... 338
On the right of the Laity to baptize ........ 338
On Infant Baptism ........... 341 |xxxiv 
On the season for administering Baptism ....... 342
Article XXVIII. On the Eucharist ........ 343
On Transubstantiation ........... 344
Article XXX. On Communion in both kinds ...... 348
On Marriage ............ 348
On Extreme Unction ........... 349
On the sign of the cross .......... 350
On Exorcism and Exsufflation ......... 350
On the custom of announcing certain hours of the day .... 351

CHAPTER VII.

CONCERNING THE HERESIES AND DIVISIONS WHICH TROUBLED THE CHURCH.

Account of the Tract adversus Judaeos ....... 353
The Nazarenes and Ebionites ......... 362
The Philosophical Heretics .......... 363
Saturninus佑erdo柚arcion ......... 365
Account of the five Books against Marcion ....... 366
Lucan, Severus, Blastus, Apelles......... 387
Bardesanes, Tatian, Basilides, Carpocrates ....... 390
Valentinus ............. 391
Account of the Tract against the Valentinians ...... 391
The Followers of Valentinus ......... 399
The Cainites ............. 400
The Grecian Heretics, Artemon裕heodotus猶raxeas .... 401
Account of the Tract against Praxeas ....... 403
Comparison of Tertullian's opinions with those declared in the First, Second, Fourth, Fifth Articles of our Church and in the Nicene and Athanasian Creeds .......... 422
Titles applied to. Christ .......... 430
On the corruptibility of Christ's Flesh, His ubiquity and personal appearance ............. 430
Hermogenes預ccount of the Tract against him ...... 431
Simon Magus ............ 439
Menander the Samaritan .......... 441
The Nicolaitans ............ 441
Heretics who asserted the mortality of the Soul . ..... 441
General observations . . . . . . . . . . .441


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