154 Another concession.
155 Tertullian's rejoinder.
156 De isto.
157 They called it ko/smoj.
158 By sapientiae profoessores he means the heathen philosophers; see De Proescript. Hoeret. c. 7.
159 In his book adv. Hermogenem, c. 8, Tertullian calls the philosophers "haereticorum patriarchae."
163 The Greek name of Jupiter, Zeu/j is here derived from ze/w, ferveo, I glow. Juno's name, #Hra Tertullian connects with a0hr, the air; para\to\ a0h\r kaq' u9pe/rqesin # Hra. These names of the two great deities suggest a connection with fire and air.
164 i.e., Cybele.
165 The earth's irrigations, and the washings of the image of Cybele every year in the river Almo by her priests, are here confusedly alluded to. For references to rhe pagan custom, see White and Riddle's large Lat. Dict. s. v. Almo.
166 Mithras, the Persian sun-god, was symbolized by the image of a lion. The sun entering the zodiacal sign Leo amidst summer heat may be glanced at.
167 Deficiam ad.
168 Sordidum. [Well and nobly said.]
169 De industria ingeniis aut viribus ampliavit.
170 2 Cor. xii. 5.
171 Tertullian, it should be remembered, lived in Africa.
175 Paupertina. This and all such passages are, of course, in imitation of Marcion's contemptuous view of the creator's work.
181 [The use of fish for fasting-days has no better warrant than Marcion's example.]
185 Adv. Marcionem, v. 12.
186 For Marcion's exclusive use, and consequent abuse, of St. Paul, see Neander's Antignostikus (Bohn), vol. ii. pp. 491, 505. 506.
187 [This date not merely settles the time of our author's work against Marcion, but supplies us with evidence that his total lapse must have been very late in life. for the five books, written at intervals and marked by progressive tokens of his spiritual decline, are as a whole, only slightly offensive to Orthodoxy. This should be borne in mind.]
188 Frivolis. Again in reference to Marcion undervaluing the creation as the work of the Demiurge.
189 Et ideo.
190 In this and the following sentences, the reader will observe the distinction which is drawn between the Supreme and good God of Marcion and his "Creator," or Demiurge.
192 Stipare se.
193 Molitus est.
196 The Supreme and good God. Tertullian here gives it as one of Marcion's tenets, that the Demiurge created the World out of pre-existent matter.
198 Ptoinde et.
200 Namely, (I) the supreme and good God; (2) His Christ; (3) the space in which He dwells; (4) the matter of His creation; (5) the Demiurge (or Marcion's "Creator"); (6) his promised Christ; (7) the space which contains him; (8) this world, his creation; (9) evil, inherent in it.
201 Consequens est ut.
203 Col. i. 16
204 Nunc enin. The elliptical nu=n ga/r of Greek argumentation.
206 "I make peace, and create evil," Isa. xlv. 7.
207 To depreciate the Creator's work the more, Marcion (and Valentinus too) used to attribute to Him the formation of all the lower creatures-worms, locusts, etc.-reserving the mightier things to the good and supreme God. See St. Jerome's Proem. in Epist. ad Philem. [See, Stier, Words of Jesus, Vol. vi. p. 81.]
209 Quo necessarior.
211 In chap. xxii.
213 Anabibazon. The a0nabiba/zwn was the most critical point in the ecliptic, in the old astrology, fot the calculation of stellar influences.
215 Trigonus. Saturn and Mars were supposed to be malignant planets. See Smith, Greek and Rom. Ant. p. 144, c. 2.
221 Ex praedicationibus.
223 Vix impleverat.
225 He means the Emperor Hadrian; comp. Apolog. c. 13.
226 The third of these books against Marcion.
228 The author says this, not as his own, but as Marcion's opinion; as is clear from his own words in his fourth book against Marcion, c. 7, (Pamelius).
229 Spiritus salutaris.
230 Aura canicularis.
231 Primum processit.
232 Utriusque instrumenti.