55 Ut adhuc suggeremus.

56 Gal. i. 6, 7.

57 Deberet.

58 Moverat illos a.

59 Gal. i. 7.

60 Isa. xl. 9. (Septuagint).

61 Isa. lii. 7.

62 We have here an instance of the high authority of the Septuagint version. It comes from the Seventy: Kai\ e0pi\ tw=| o0nomati au0tou= e!qnh e0lpiou=sin (Isa. xlii. 4.) From this Tertullian, as usual, quoted it. But what is much more important, St. Matthew has adopted it; see chap. xii. ver. 21. This beautiful promise of the Creator does not occur in its well-known form in the Hebrew original.

63 Isa. xlii. 6.

64 Apud: "administered by."

65 Gal. i. 7.

66 Cum sit.

67 Gal. i. 8.

68 Gal. i. 8.

69 Referret.

70 A similar remark occurs in Proescript. Hoeretic. c. xxiii. p. 253.

71 Ipsa materia.

72 See Gal. i. 11-24, compared with Acts xv. 5-29.

73 "The Acts of the Apostles" is always a plural phrase in Tertullian.

74 Ut non secutus sit.

75 Formam.

76 Dedocendae legis; i.e., of Moses.

77 Ad patrocinium.

78 Scribit often takes the place of inquit; naturally enough as referring to the epistles.

79 Gal. ii. 1, 2.

80 Formam.

81 Si quando.

82 Gal. ii. 3.

83 Ex defensione.

84 Gal. ii. 4.

85 Interpolatione Scripturae.

86 Que effingerent.

87 Gal. ii. 4, 5.

88 Ipsi.

89 Gal. ii. 3, 4.

90 Incipit reddere rationem.

91 Contrarii utique facti. [Farrar, St. Paul, pp. 232 and 261.]

92 Denique.

93 See Conybeare and Howson, in loc.

94 Fuerunt propter quos crederetur.

95 The following statement will throw light upon the character of the two classes of Jewish professors of Christianity referred to by Tertullian: "A pharisaic section was sheltered in its bosom (of the church at Jerusalem), which continually strove to turn Christianity into a sect of Judaism. These men were restless agitators, animated by the bitterest sectarian spirit; and although they were numerically a small party, yet we know the power of the turbulent minority. But besides these Judaizing zealots, there was a large proportion of the Christians at Jerusalem, whose Christianity, though more sincere than that of those just mentioned, was yet very weak and imperfect...Many of them still only knew of a Christ after the flesh-a Saviour of Israel-a Jewish Messiah. Their minds were in a state of transition between the law and the gospel; and it was of great consequence not to shock their prejudices too rudely; lest they should be tempted to make shipwreck of their faith and renounce their Christianity altogether." These were they whose prejudices required to be wisely consulted in things which did not touch the foundation of the gospel. (Conybeare and Howson's St. Paul, People's Edition, vol. ii. pp. 259, 260.)

96 Gal. ii. 2.

97 Ex. censu eorum: see Gal. ii. 9, 10.

98 Acts xvi. 3.

99 Acts xxi. 23-26.

100 1 Cor. ix. 20, 22.

101 Gal. ii. 9.

102 Gal. ii. 10.

103 See above, book iv. chap. xiv. p. 365.

104 Victus: see Gal. ii. 12; or, living, see ver. 14.

105 Gal. ii. 12.

106 Gal. ii. 16.

107 Gal. ii. 18 (see Conybeare and Howson).

108 Rivi: the wadys of the East.

109 Luke iii. 4, 5.

110 Ps. ii. 3.

111 Ps. ii. 1, 2.

112 Gal. ii. 16 and iii. 11.

113 Hab. ii. 4.

114 Apud.

115 Deut. xi. 26.

116 Gal. iii. 13.

117 The LXX. version of Deut. xxi. 23 is quoted by St. Paul in Gal. iii. 13.

118 Apud te.

119 According to the promise of a prophet of the Creator. See Hab. ii. 4.

120 Gal. iii. 26.

121 Gal. iii. 7, 9, 29.

122 Gal. iii. 6.

123 Magis proinde: as sharing in the faith he had, "being yet uncircumcised." See Rom. iv. 11.

124 Patris fidei.

125 In integritate carnis.

126 Denique.

127 Formam: "plan" or "arrangement."

128 Alterius dei...dei alterius.

129 Revincatur.

130 Ipso sensu.

131 This apparent quotation is in fact a patching together of two sentences from Gal. iii. 15 and iv. 3. (Fr. Junius). "If I may be allwed to guess from the manner in which Tertullian expresseth himself, I should imagine that Marcion erased the whole of chap. iii. after the word le/gw in ver. 15, and the beginning of chap. iv., until you come to the word o#te in ver. 3. Then the words will be connected thus: `Brethren, I speak after the manner of men...when we were children we were in bondage under the elements of the world ; but when the fulness of time was come, God sent forth His Son. 0' This is precisely what the argument of Tertullian requires, and they are the very words which he connects together" (Lardner, Hist. of Heretics, x. 43). Dr. Lardner, touching Marcion's omissions in this chap. iii. of the Epistle to the Galatians, says: "He omitted vers. 6, 7, 8, in order to get rid of the mention of Abraham, and of the gospel having been preached to him." This he said after St. Jerome, and then adds: "He ought also to have omitted part of ver. 9, su\n tw=| pistw=| 'Abraa/m, which seems to have been the case, according to T.'s manner of stating the argument against him" (Works, History of Heretics, x. 43).

132 Exemplum.

133 Suspicit.

134 Gal. iii. 15. This, of course, is consistent in St. Paul's argument. Marcion, however, by erasing all the intervening verses, and affixing the phrase "after the manner of men" to the plain assertion of Gal. iv. 3, reduces the whole statement to an absurdity.

135 Gal. iii. 16.

136 Erubescat.

137 So, instead of pursuing the contents of chap. iii., he proceeds to such a chap. iv. as Marcion reserved.

138 Gal. iv. 4.

139 In extremitatem temporum.

140 Isa. ii. 2 (Sept).

141 Joel iii. 28, as quoted by St. Peter, Acts ii. 17.

142 Ipsius.

143 Gal. iv. 5.

144 Isa. xl. 4.

145 Isa. ii. 3.

146 Gal. iv. 5.

147 Isa. xlii. 4, 6.