337 Emereri, "to earn or obtain." The word is specially applied to soldiers who have served their time, and are entitled to their discharge.
339 Omnibus numeris absoluta.
340 i.e., was shown by the event to be true, not doubtful or deceptive.
341 Inania, "empty."
343 Hactenus operata est.
344 In eloquium solvit.
345 See Matt. ix. 33, "The dumb spake, and the multitudes marvelled:" Mark vii. 37, "They were beyond measure astonished, saying, He hath done all things well: He maketh both the deaf to hear and the dumb to speak."
346 Inerat huic virtuti.
347 In usu suo non est.
348 Elephantiaci, those afflicted with "elephantiasis," a kind of leprosy, covering the skin with incrustations resembling the hide of an elephant.
349 Resignasse, "to have unsealed or opened."
350 Figuram gerebant.
351 [It is undoubtedly true that all our Lord's miracles are also parables. Such also is the entire history of the Hebrews.]
352 Acerbitates et amaritudines.
353 The word "corona" denotes a "crown," and also, as here, a "ring" of persons standing around. The play on the word cannot be kept up in English. [Thus "corona tibi et judices defuerunt" Cicero, Nat. Deor., ii. 1. So Ignatius, ste/fanon tou= presbuteri/ou = corona presbyterii, vol. i. p. 64, this series.]
355 The cross was the usual punishment of slaves.
357 A weak and senseless reason. The true cause is given by St. John xix. 36: "These things were done that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of Him shall not be broken." [The previous question, however, remains: Why was the Paschal lamb to be of unbroken bones, and why the special providence that fulfilled the type? Doubtless He who raised up His body could have restored it, had the bones also been broken; but the preciousness of Christ's body was thus indicated as in the new tomb, the fine linen and spices, and the ministry of "the rich in his death, because He had done no violence," etc.-Isa. liii. 9.]
358 The sign of the cross used in baptism.
359 The account, Ex xii., makes no mention of colour. "Without spot" is equivalent to "without blemish." [But the whiteness implied. "Without spot" excludes "the ring-streaked and speckled," and a black lamb a fortiori.-1 Pet. i. 19. "Without spot" settles the case. Isa. i. 18 proves that the normal wool is white.]
361 a\po tou= pa/sxein, "rom suffering" The word "pascha" is not derived from Greek, as Lactantius supposes, but from the Hebrew "pasach," to pass over.
362 [See book vii., and the Epitome, cap. li.,infra.]
363 Litant, a word peculiar to the soothsayers, used when the sacrifices are auspicious.
364 Virg., Georg., iii. 491.
365 Nostri, i.e., Christians.
366 Depingere; to make observations on the entrails of the victims, so as to foretell future events.
367 Prosecrârant. Others read "prosecârant," a sacrificial word, properly denoting the setting apart some of the victim for offering to the gods.
368 Praesentibus poenis, "on the spot."
369 i e., the sign of the cross, with which the early Christians frequently marked themselves [So long as Christians were mocked and despised as followers of a crucified one there was a silent testimony and bold confession in this act which must be wholly separated from the mere superstition of degenerate Christians. It used to mean just what the Apostle says, Gal. vi. 14. In this sense it is retained among Anglicans.]
370 [See vol. iii. pp. 37, 176, 180, and iv. 189-190.]
371 [The cessation of oracles is attested by Plutarch. See also Tertullian, vol. iii. p. 38, this series, and Minucius, vol. iv. p. 190. Demonology needs further exposition, for Scripture is express in its confirmation of patristic views of the subject.]
372 There is probably a reference to Iliad, i. 221, where Athene is represented as going to Olympus:-
h9' ou!lupo/nde bebh/kei
dw/mat' e0j aigio/xoio Dio\j meta\ dai/monaj a!llouj
373 Ut errores hominibus immittant.
374 Per diversa regionum. There is another reading, "perversâ religione"-by perverted religion.
375 The reference is to necromancy, or calling up the spirits of the dead by magic rites.
376 There is another reading: "qui de Deo patre omnia, et de filio locutus est multa;" but this is manifestly erroneous.
377 So our Lord, John xvii. 3: "This is life eternal, that they might know Thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom Thou hast sent."
378 ["Hoc vinculo pietatis obstricti Deo et religati sumus." He returns to this in the same chapter, infra.]
379 A religendo. There is little doubt that the true derivation of "religio" is from religere, not from religare. According to this, the primary meaning is, "the dwelling upon a subject, and continually recurring to it."
380 Superstites, et superstitiosi.
381 [Here the famous passage should be given with accurate reference to its place, as much of its force vanishes in translation. Cicero's etymology is thus given: "Qui autem omnia quae ad cultum deorum pertinerent, diligentes retractarent et tamquam relegerent sunt dicti religiosi, ex relegendo, ut elegantes ex eligendo, tamquam a diligendo diligentes, ex intelligendo intelligentes."-De Nat. Deor., lib. ii. cap. 28.]
382 Demerentur, "they lay under an obligation."
383 Criminis est.
385 [This seems very loose language when compared with Matt. vi. 9 and 1 Cor. xi. 1, 2. The whole epistle shows the how and the what to be important in worship, and that the Apostle had prescribed certain laws about these.]
386 See note 4, supra]
387 [Lactantius has generally been sustained by Christian criticism in the censures thus passed upon Cicero, and in making the word religio out of religare. His own words are desirable here, to be compared with those which he endeavors to refute (note 4, supra): "Diximus nomen religionis a vinculo pietatis esse deductum, quod hominem sibi Deus religarit," etc.; i.e., it binds again what was loosed.]
388 Lucret., 931.
390 i.e., those worshipped in public temples, and with public sacrifices, as opposed to the household gods of a family, and ancient as opposed to those newly received as gods.
391 Virg., Aeneid, viii. 187.
392 [i.e., the Everlasting Father implies the Everlasting Son.]
393 Ille, i.e., the Father.
394 Hic, i e., the Son.
395 Thus, Heb. i. 3, the Son is described as the effulgence of the Father's glory: a0pau/gasma th=j do/chj au0you=.
396 In manu patris. Among the Romans the father had the power of life and death over his children.
397 [Mundus una Dei domus. World here = universe. See vol. ii. p. 136, note 2, this series.]
398 Ch. xiii.
399 Isa. xlv. 14.
400 Isa. xliv. 6.
401 Ch. xix.
402 Hos. xiii. 14.
403 Thus Christ Himself speaks, John x. 30, "I and my Father are one;" and iii. 35, "The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into His hand."
404 So Jer. ii. 13.
405 See Matt. xviii. 7; Luke xvii. 1; 1 Cor. xi. 19; 2 Pet. ii. 1.
408 [N.B.-The Callistians, Novatians, etc.; vol. v. Elucidation XIV. p. 160: and Ibid., p. 319, 321-333.]