87 Deut. vi. 5; Lev. xix. 18; Matt. xxii. 37, 39.

88 Matt. xxii. 40.

89 [The strong testimony borne by Augustin against the perverse subjective criticism of the Manichaens has an important application to the present time.-A. H. N.].

90 [This view of the marriage relation seems to have been almost universal in the ancient Church. Tertullian and Clement of Alexandria are fond of dwelling upon it. For Augustin's views more fully stated see his De Bono Conjugali, 6. See also an interesting excursus on "Continence in Married Life" in Cunningham's St. Austin, p. 168. sq.-A. H. N.]

91 [If this apostrophe had been addressed to "Christianity" rather than to the "Catholic Church," no Christian could fail to see in it one of the noblest tributes ever bestowed on the religion of Christ. Augustin identified Christianity with the organized body which was far from realizing the ideal that he here sets forth. As an apostrophe to ideal Christianity nothing could be finer.-A. H. N.]

92 Deut. iv. 24. Retract. i. 7, § 5:-"The Pelagians may think that I have spoken of perfection as attainable in this life. But they must not think so. For the fervor of charity which is fitted for following God, and of force enough to consume all vices, can have its origin and growth in this life; but it does not follow that it can here accomplish the purpose of its origin, so that no vice shall remain in the man; although this great effect is produced by this same fervor of charity, when and where this is possible, that as the laver of regeneration purifies from the guilt of all the sins which attach to man's birth, or come from his evil conduct, so this perfection may purify him from all stain from the vices which necessarily attend human infirmity in this world. So we must understand the words of the apostle: `Christ loved the Church, and gave himself for it; cleansing it with the washing of water by the word, that He might present it to Himself a glorious Church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing 0' (Eph. v. 25-27). For in this world there is the washing of water by the word which purifies the Church. But as the whole Church, as long as it is here, says, `Forgive us our debts, 0' it certainly is not while here without spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing; but from that which it here receives, it is led on to the glory which is not here, and to perfection."

93 Luke xii. 49.

94 Hos. xiii. 14; 1 Cor. xv. 54, 55.

95 I Cor. xv. 56.

96 [This picture of coenobitic life, even in its purest form, is doubtless idealized. It is certain that the monasteries very soon became hot-beds of vice, and the refuge of the scum of society.-A. H. N.]

97 [Augustin ascribes a broadmindedness and charitableness to the ascetics of his time which was doubtless quite subjective. The ascetics of that age with whose history we are acquainted were not of this type. Jerome is an example.-A. H. N.]

98 Tit. i. 15.

99 Matt. xv. 11.

100 1 Cor. vi. 13.

101 1 Cor. viii. 8.

102 Rom. xiv. 2-21.

103 See title of the Epistle of Manichaeus, Contra Faust. xii i. 4.

104 1 Cor. vi. 12.

105 1 Tim. v. 23.

106 1 Tim. iv. 8.

107 [Augustin says nothing of the encouragement given to such pagan practices by men regarded in that age as possessed of almost superhuman sanctity, such as Sulpicius Severus, Paulinus of Nola, etc. He speaks of corruptions as if they were exceptional, whereas they seem to have been the rule. Yet there is force in his contention that Christianity be judged by its best products rather than by the worst elements associated with it.-A. H. N.]

108 [Augustin's ideal representation of Christianity and his identification of the organized Catholic Church with Christianity is quite inconsistent with the practice of the Church which he here seeks to justify. No duty is more distinctly enjoined upon believers in the New Testament than separation from unbelievers and evil doers. But such separation is impracticable in an established Church such as that to which Augustin rejoiced to belong.-A. H. N.]

109 Matt. iii. 13, and xiii. 24-43.

110 1 Cor. vii. 31.

111 1Cor. vi. 11-20.

112 I Cor. vii. 1-7.

113 1 Cor. vii. 14.

114 2 Cor. iv. 16.

1 This statement has a complete parallel in Clement of Alexandria, and along with what follows, is Neo-Platonic.-A. H. N.]

2 [On Augustin's view of negativity of evil and on the relation of this view to Neo-Platonism, see Introduction, chapter IX. Augustin's view seems to exclude the permanence of evil in the world, and so everlasting punishment and everlasting rebellion against God.-A. H. N.]

3 [It is probable that Mani thought of the Kingdom of Light pantheistically, and that the principles personified in his mythological system were the result of efforts on his part to connect the infinite with the finite.-A. H. N.]