72 Various readings of text add "lawfully married" women, and send them back again "grievously dishonored," and so Bag., but Heinichen has this reading. Compare note of Heinichen.

73 This chapter is found almost word for word in the Church History, 8. 14.

74 1709, Molz. &c., add "nor anywhere else," but Bag. is undoubtedly fight in translating simply "ever before." The chapter is found substantially and in part word for word in the Church History, 8. 14.

75 "Because the soothsayers had foretold that if he went out of it, he should perish." Lact. De M. P.

76 Bag. adds "and numberless ambuscades," following Valesius and 1709. The word so rendered is the word for "companies of soldiers." The rather awkward "multitude of heavy-armed soldiers and myriads of companies of soldiers" may be rendered as above, although "larger bodies of soldiers and limitless supplies"suggested by the translation is perhaps the real meaning. He had both "men and means."

77 At Sigusium, Turin, Brescia, and Verona.

78 The Milvian, the present Ponte Molle.

79 The present Ponte Molle is nearly 2 1/2 kilometers (say 1 1/2 miles) from the Porta del Popolo (at the Mons Pincius). The walls at that time were the ones built by Aurelian, and are substantially the same as the present ones. This Pons Milvius was first built 100 years b.c., and "some part of the first bridge is supposed to remain" (Jenkin, p. 329). Compare Jenkin, art. Bridges, in Enc. Brit. 4 (1878), 329, for cut and description.

80 Ex. xv. 4. This is identically taken from the Septuagint with the change of only one word, where Eusebius gains little in exchanging "swallowed up in" for plunged or drowned in.

81 "Heavy armed and light armed."

82 Ex. xv. 5.

83 "Godless," or if aneu is to be read, "destitute of his aid," as Bag. Much conjecture has been expended on this reading. Heinichen has aqeei.

84 Ps. vii. 15, Ps. vii. 16, Septuagint translation.

85 This matter is discussed in the Prolegomena.

86 Ex. xv. 10.

87 Ex. xv. 1, Ex. xv. 2, Ex. xv. 11, Septuagint version. This whole chapter with the last paragraph of the preceding are in the Church History, 9. 9.

88 Compare Prolegomena under Character, and also for other accounts of the universal joy under Life.

89 Compare the Church History, 9. 9.

If it be true, as Cruse says, that in this inscription there are traces of the Latin original, it gives a strong presumption that Eusebius was quoting a really existing inscription and accordingly that it is genuine. If so, of course the probability of the vision of the cross is greatly increased.

90 "Oratories," or chapels.

91 Variously rendered, but seems to say that the smaller buildings were enlarged and the larger ones enriched. The number of buildings which Constantine is claimed to have erected in Rome alone is prodigious. One meets at every turn in the modern city churches which were, it is said, founded or remodeled by him. For interesting monograph which claims to have established the Constantinian foundation of many of these, see Ciampini in Prolegomena, under Literature.

92 So usually rendered literally, "to those who came to him from without," but it might rather mean "foreigners." His generosity included not only the worthy poor citizens, but foreigners and beggars.

93 The word used is the koinwnia, familiar in the doctrine of the "communion" or "fellowship" of the saints. It has the notion of reciprocity and mutual sharing.

94 The popular proverb that at the end of his life he was a spendthrift, as given by Victor, represents the other side of this liberality. Compare Prolegomena, under Character.

95 Constantine, like Eusebius himself, would be a distinct "tolerationist" in modern theological controversy. One may imagine that Eusebius entered into favor with Constantine in this way. It commends itself to our feeling; but after all, the unyielding Athanasius was a greater man than Eusebius.

96 Compare Prolegomena, under Life and Works.

97 [This passage in the text is defective or corrupt.-Bag.] What is given is substantially the conventional translation of Valesius, Heinichen, Molzberger, and with some variation, 1709 and Bag. It is founded, however, on a conjectural reading, and reluctating against this, a suggestion may be hazarded-"an excessive philanthropy for the folly of the insane, even to the point of sympathy for them."

98 Some read "unbroken" or "perfect."

99 There is long discussion of whether Maximian or Maximin is intended. To any one who compares the order of narration in the Church History, 9. 9, 11, the discussion will seem idle, though it is curious that the one most jealous and greedy of power should have been mistaken for one of the abdicators. It seems as if there had been some confusion in the mind of Eusebius himself.

100 Unburnt offerings, meat offerings.

101 Licinius married in 313 Constantia, sister of Constantine.

102 Thus generally following the Church History (10. 8).

103 This rendering of Bag. is really a gloss from the Church History, 10. 8. Compare rendering of McGiffert. Molzberger renders "and left him in complete possession of the portions of the kingdom which had fallen to his lot."

104 Perhaps "synods or councils and conferences on economic matters."

105 Compare Church History, 10. 9.