95 Col. ii. 16, Col. ii. 17.
96 Heb. vii. 12.
97 o apostoloj <\=85_ta euaggelia, the two parts of the New Testament, speaking generally. See Sophocles' Greek Lec. of the Rom. and Byzant. Periodj under apostoloj and euaggelion.
98 Gal. v. I.
99 Matt. xxvi. 2; Mark xiv. 1; Luke xxii. 1.
100 tessareskaidekatitai, those who observed Easter on the fourteenth day of the lunar month (Nisan of the Jewish calendar). On the Quartodeciman controversy, see Schürer, de Centroversiis Paschalibus secundo post Christum natum Saeculo exortis; also, Salmon, Introduction to the New Testament, 3 ed. p. 252-267.
101 Irenaeus, Haer. III. 3, 4.
102 Polycarp suffered martyrdom in 156 a.d. (see Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, Part II. Vol. I. p. 629-702, containing conclusive proof of this, as well as a history of the question); whence it appears that it was under Antoninus Pius that he died. Valesius therefore infers that Socrates meant to speak of Irenaeus as suffering martyrdom under Gordian, and not of Polycarp. If this be the case, we must assume a serious corruption of the text, or an unparalleled confusion in Socrates.
103 Euseb. V. 24.
104 Josephus, Antiq. III. 10. The passage is worth quoting entire, running as follows: `In the month Xanthicus, which is called Nisan by us, and is the beginning of the year, on the fourteenth day of the moon, while the sun is in the sign of Aries (the Ram), for during this month we were freed from bondage under the Egyptians, he has also appointed that we should sacrifice each year the sacrifice which, as we went out of Egypt, they commanded us to offer, it being called the Passover.0'
105 The Audiani, who averred that the Synod of Nicaea first fixed the time of Easter.
106 Euseb. Life of Constant. III. 19.
107 Cf. Bingham, Christ. Antiq. XX. v.
108 Baronius (Ann. 57 and 391 a.d.) finds two mistakes here: first, in the assertion that the Romans fasted three weeks only before Easter, and second, in the assertion that during those three weeks Saturdays were excepted. Cf. also Ceillier, Hist. des Auteurs Sacrés et Ecclesiast. Vol. VIII. p. 523, 524. Valesius, however, quotes Pope Leo (fourth sermon on the Lent Fast) and Venerable Beda to prove that Socrates' assertion concerning the exception of Saturday may be defended. See Quesnell, de Fejunio Sabbati; Bingham, Origin. Eccl. XXI. I. 14; also Beveridge, de Fejunio Quadragesimali.
109 Tessarakosth = Lent; the Latin equivalent is, of course, Quadragesima.
110 Gen. i. 20.
111 Valesius rightly conjectures that very few observed this mode of fasting during Lent, basing his opinion on the order of worship and various deprecatory expressions in ancient authors with respect to it. It may be noted that the Mohammedan Fast of Ramadan is observed on the same principle and in a similar manner. The fast begins with the dawn of the sun and continues until sunset, being complete for that space of time. With the setting of the sun, however, every person is at liberty to eat as he may please.
112 ounacewn. Sophocles (Greek Lex. of the Rom. and Byzant. Period) gives the following senses to the word: 1. `Religious meeting0'; 2. `Religious service0'; 3. `Place of meeting0'; 4. `Congregation.0' To these we may add on the authority of Casaubon (Exercit. XVI. ad Annal. Baronii, No. 42) 5. `The celebration of the Eucharist.0' It is in the second sense given by Sophocles that it is used here.
113 i.e. Saturday. Sunday is never called `the Sabbath0' by the ancient Fathers and historians, but `the Lord's day0' (kuriakh). Sophocles (Greek Lex. of the Rom. and Byzant. Period) gives three senses to the word; viz., 1. `The Sabbath0' [of the Jews] (so in the LXX and Jewish writers). 2. `The week.0' 3. `Saturday.0' Many early Christians, however, continued to observe the Jewish Sabbath along with the first day of the week. Cf. Bingham, Christ. Antiq. XX. 3.
114 prosferontej, freely = `celebrating the Eucharist.0' Irenaeus, Contra Haeres. XVIII. 3; Euseb. Demonstr. Evan. X. 1; Athan. Apol. Contr. Arian, 28.
115 `If any bishop ...does not fast on Wednesday or Friday let him be deposed.0' So Apost. Can. 69. These two days are universally joined together by the Greek and Roman Catholic Churches.
116 Cf. Rom. viii. 3.
117 upoboleij, lit. = `prompters,0' whose duty it was to read the Psalms which the people chanted.
118 On the celibacy of the clergy and its gradual growth, see Bingham, Christ. Antiq. IV. 5; Apost. Can. 51, and Council of Gangra, Can, 1 (Hefele, Hist. Ch. Councils, Vol. II. p. 325 seq.).
119 A novel on the adventures of Theagenes and Chariclea. The Heliodorus who wrote the Ethiopica was, according to Photius, Biblioth. chap. 94, a native of Phoenicia, hence not the same as the bishop of Tricca. Others ascribe the Ethiopica to Heliodorus the Sophist, who flourished under the Emperor Hadrian.
120 According to the Apost. Constit. (II. 57) a church should be built so as to face the east. This regulation was generally followed, but there were exceptions. Cf. Bingham, Christ. Antiq. VIII. 3. 2.
121 i.e. the catholic or orthodox church; used perhaps in the same way as the expression `established church0' in modern times.
122 Apost. Can. 64, provides that no cleric or layman shall fast on the Sabbath day (Saturday, see note 22, above), the former on pain of being deposed, the latter, of being excommunicated. It appears, however, that the Roman church observed the day as a fast, while the Greek church held it to be a feast. Socrates, however, seems to contradict the statement he had made above (see note 17) that at Rome Saturdays and Sundays were excepted from the list of fasting days in Lent. From Augustine's Epistles, 36. 31 et al., it appears that he fasted on Saturday and regarded this the regular and proper course to be pursued, and actually pursued by members of the church. Hence the present statement of Socrates must be taken as correct to the exclusion of the former.
123 Apost. Can. 17. `He who has been twice married after baptism ... cannot become bishop, presbyter, or deacon, or any other [cleric] included in the sacerdotal list.0'
124 Acts xv. 23-39. The quotation is here from the Authorized Version. The Revised has it slightly altered. We subjoin it for comparison. `The apostles and the elder brethren unto the brethren which are of the Gentiles in Antioch and Syria and Cilicia, greeting: Forasmuch as we have heard that certain which went out from us have troubled you with words, subverting your souls; to whom we gave no commandment; it seemed good unto us, having come to one accord, to choose out men and send them unto you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul, men that have hazarded their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. We have sent therefore Judas and Silas, who themselves also shall tell you the same things by word of mouth. For it seemed good to the Holy Ghost, and to us, to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things; that ye abstain from things sacrificed to idols, and from blood, and from things strangled, and from fornication; from which if ye keep yourselves, it shall be well with you. Fare ye well.0'
125 Gal. iv. 4.
126 See above, chap. 20.
127 Cf. Theodoret, Haetel. Fabal. IV. 4; also Sozomen (probably dependent on Socrates), VII. 17.
128 yaqurion, a species of cake; hence yaquropwlhj, `cake-seller.0'
129 Sozomen (VII. 17) adds that Selenas was a secretary of Ulfilas and had been promoted to be his successor.
130 419 a.d.
131 Cf. IV. 7 and 13.
132 Apost. Can. 50 reads: `If any bishop or presbyter does not perform the one initiation with three immersions, but with one immersion only into the death of the Lord, let him be deposed.0' Also the Second General Synod (that of Constantinople, 381) in its 7th Canon passed the following: `But the Eunomians, who only baptize with one immersion, and the Montanists, who are here called Phrygians, and the Sabellians, who teach the doctrine of the Fatherhood of the Son ...(if they wish to be joined to the Orthodox faith) we receive as heathen; on the first day we make them Christians, on the second, catechumens, &c.0' See Hefele, Hist. of the Church Councils, Vol. II. p. 367, 368.
133 Epiphan. Ancoratus, 13. Photius calls the Ancoratus a synopsis of the treatise of Epiphanius on Heresies (Biblioth. 123). The subject here referred to was treated by Epiphanius in Haer. LXVI. and LXVIII.
134 This account of Arbogastes and Eugenius is also given by Zosimus (IV. 53-58), who adds that Arbogastes was a Frank; and also by Philortorgius (XI. 1), who says that Eugenius was a pagan.
135 393 a.d.
136 Cf. Zosimus, IV. 57.
137 Cf. Zosimus, IV. 58, who gives the additional item that the sun was eclipsed during this battle.
138 394 a.d.
139 395 a.d.
140 There is some doubt as to the length of Theodosius' life; most of the ancient historians (Sozomen, Theophanes, Cedrenus) agree with Socrates in giving it as sixty years. Am. Marcellinus Rerum Gestarum, XXIX. 6. 15, and Victor, Epit. XLVII., leave the impression that he was fifty.
1 Cf. V. Int.
2 The comic poets, e.g. Menander, Plautus, Terence.
3 Cf. Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Rom. Empire, chap. 29.
4 V. 8.
5 See Bennett, Christian Archaeology, p. 210 seq., and Bingham, Christ. Antiq. XXII. 1 and 2, for details on the burial of the dead in the early Church.
6 Zosimus (V. 5) says Rufinus invited Alaric and the Goths to invade the Roman territories; Valesius reconciles Socrates' and Zosimus' statements by assuming that they are partial and supplementary to one another; Rufinus, according to him, invited both the Huns and the Goths.
7 V. 10, 21, et al.
8 Cf. V. 8.
9 397 a.d.
10 The well-known bishop of Antioch and Constantinople, who on account of his extraordinary gift of eloquence was surnamed Chrysostom, `the Golden-mouth.0' See The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. IX. Prolegomena on the life and writings of St. John Chrysostom by Dr. Schaff. Also cf. ancient authorities: Palladius, Dialogus historicus de vita et conversatione beati Foannis Chrysostomi cum Theodoro Ecclesiae Romanaae diacono; Jerome, de Viris Illustribus, c. 129; Sozomen, VIII. 2-23; Theodoret, H. E. V. 27-36; and modern Smith & Wace, Dict. of Christ. Biog.; F. W. Farrar, Lives of the Fathers, Vol. II. p. 460-527, and many monograms and longer or briefer notices in the standard church histories.
11 Cf. Theodoret, V. 22, under this Theophilus the pagan temples of Mithras and Serapis were attacked, as related above in V. 16 and 17. For a fuller notice of Theophilus, see Smith & Wace, Dict. of Christ. Biog.
12 Cf. chap. 9 of this book.
13 Cf. Zosimus, V. 3, 8, 10, 17, 18, and Eunapius, Fragm. 53, 56.
14 398 a.d.