81 I. Cor. iv. 9.
82 In Coele Syria, near the sources of the Orontes, where the ruins of the temple of the sun built by Autoninus Pius are known by the modern equivalent of the older title - Baal-Bek. "the city of the sun."
83 Jer. ii. 12. A V. "Be astonished, O ye heavens." But in Sept. as in text ecesth o ouranoj epi toutw.
84 Isaiah 1. 2.
85 Here the obvious sense of deisidaimonwn matches the "superstitious" of A. V. in Acts 17. 22.
86 Valesius identifies Phennesus with Phynon in Arabia Petraea, now Tafileh.
87 The island of Marmara in the sea of that name.
88 The Roman "Flagellum" was a frightful instrument of torture, and is distinguished from the "scutica," or whip, and "virga," or rod. It was knotted with bones and bits of metal; and sometimes ended in a hook. Horace (Sat. 1. iii, 119) calls it "horribile."
89 ct. Soph. Ant. 30, Where the corpse of Polyneikes is described as left
-" unwept unsepulchred
A prize full rich for birds." (Plumptre.)
Christian sentiment is still affected by the horror felt by the Greeks at deprivation of the rites of burial which finds striking expression in the dispute between Teucer and Menelaos about the burial of Ajax.
90 Ex. xii. 30.
91 I. Peter v. 8.
92 Now Sefurieh, anciently Sepphoris; an unimportant place till erected by Herod Antipas into the capital of Galilee.
93 Proverbs xxvii. 20.
94 Now Niksar, on the river Lykus, the scene of two councils; (i.) a.d. 315, when the first canon ordered every priest to forfeit his orders on marriage (Mansi ii. 539) (ii.) a.d. 350, when Eustathius of Sebaste was condemned (Mansi, iii. 291).
95 cf. Soz. vi. 38, and Soc. iv. 36.
96 The word used is xeirotonia, of which it is well to trace the varying usages. These are given by the late Rev. E. Hatch (Dict. Christ. Ant. ii. 1501) as follows. "This word is used (a) in the N. T. Acts xiv, 24, xeirotonhsantej de autoij kat' ekklhsian presbuterouj: II. Cor. viii. 19 (of Titus) xeirotonhqeij upo twn ekklhsiwn; (b) in sub-apostolic Greek, Ignat. ad Philad. c. 10; (c) in the Clementines, Clement. Ep. ad Jacob. c. 2; (d) in the Apostolical Constitution; (e) in the Canon Law; (f) in the Civil Law. Its meaning was originally "to
97 i.e. about 375. elect," but it came afterwards to mean even in classical Greek, simply "to appoint to office," without itself indicating the particular mode of appointment (cf. Schomann de Comitus, p. 122). That the latter was its ordinary meaning in Hellenistic Greek, and consequently in the first ages of church history, is clear from a large number of instances; e.g. in Josephus vi. 13, 9, it is used of the appointment of David as King by God; id. xiii, 22, of the appointment of Jonathan as High Priest by Alexander; in Philo ii, 76 it is used of the appointment of Joseph as governor by Pharaoh; in Lucian, de morte Peregrini c. 41 of the appointment of ambassadors. "In Sozomen vii, 24 of the appointment of Arcadius as Augustus by Theodosius." "In later times a new connotation appears of which there is no early trace; it was used of the stretching out of the bishop's hands in the rite of imposition of hands." The writer of the above seems hardly to do justice to its early use for ordination as well as for appointment. In the Pseudo-Ig. ad. Her. c. iii, it is said of bishops ekeinoi xeirotonousi, xeiroqetousi and Bp. Lightfoot comments "while xeiroqesia is used of laying on of hands, e.g. in confirmation, xeirotonia is said of ordination, e.g. Ap. Const. viii. 27. `episkopoj upo triwn h duo episkopwn xeirotoneisqw.0' Referring originally to the election of the Clergy xeirotonia came afterwards to be applied commonly, as here, to their ordination." Theodoretus uses the word in both senses, and sometimes either will fit in with the context.
98 Sozomen (vi. 38) describes Lucius as remonstrating in moderate language. "Do not judge of me before you know what my creed is." Socrates (iv. 36) makes Moses charge Lucius with condemning the orthodox to exile, beasts, and burning. On Socrates Valesius annotates "Hanc narrationem de episcopo Saracenis dato et de pace cum iisdem facta, desumpsit quidera Socrates, ex Rufini lib. ii. 6." Lucius was ejected from Alexandria when the reign of Valens ended with his death in 378. Theodoretus appears to confound this Lucius with an Arian Lucius who usurped the see of Samosata. Vide chap. xviii.
99 Psalm cxxxvii.
100 Psalm ciii. 22.
101 cf. "Virtus sola nobilitas."
102 Diodorus was now a presbyter. Chrysost. (Laus Diodori §4. tom. iii. p. 749) describes how the whole city assembled and were fed by his tongue flowing with milk and honey, themselves meanwhile supplying his necessities with their gifts. Valens retorted with redoubled violence, and anticipated the "noyades" of Carrier at Lyons. cf. Socrates iv. 17 and Dict. Christ. Biog. ii. 529.
103 The five contests of the complete athlete are summed up in the line
alma, podwkeihn, diskon, akonta, palhn.
104 Relig. Hist. viii.
105 The word Sisura was used for a common upper garment, but according to the grammarian Tzetzes (Schol. Ad. Lyc. 634) its accurate meaning is the one given in the text.
106 A monk of Gindarus near Antioch (Theod. Vit. Pat. ii.) afterward envoy from the Syrian churches to Rome, and Bishop of Beroea, (Aleppo) a.d. 378. He was at Constantinople in 381, (cf. v. 8.) and is famous for his opposition to Chrysostom.
107 Julianus Sabas (i.e. Abba) an ascetic solitary of Osrhoëne, the district south of the modern Horton. He is the second of the saints of Theodoret's "Religious History," where we read that he lived on millet bread, which he ate once a week, and performed various miracles, which are recorded by Theodoret on the authority of Acacius.
108 Antonius, St. Anthony, the illustrious and illiterate ascetics friend and correspondent of Constantine (Soc. i. 13), the centre of many wild legends, was born in 250 a.d. in upper Egypt. Athanasius calls him the "founder of Asceticism." In 335 he revisited Alexandria to oppose the Arians, as narrates in the text. He died in his cell in 355, bequeathing his "hair shirt. his two woollen tunics, and his bed, among Amathas and Macarius who watched his last hours, Serapion, and Athanasius."
Vide Ath. Vit. S. Ant.
109 i.e. the district round Chalcis in Syria, to be distinguished from the Macedonian Chalcidice.
110 Native of Theodoret's see of Cyrus. He built himself a cell like the "Little Ease" of the Tower of London, and promoted orthodoxy by the influence of his austerities. _c. 385. cf. Tillemont, viii. 483.
111 A. went on missionary journeys disguised as a pedlar, and eventually unwillingly became bishop of Carrae. Theod. Relig. Hist. 3.
112 Presumably Apamea ad Orontem. (Famiah.)
113 Bishop of Apamea, a comrade and disciple of Marcianus. (Relig. Hist. iii.)
114 Also a disciple of Marcian. For fifty years he maintained a school of ascetic philosophy. cf. Chrysost. Ep. 55. and Tillemont. ix. 304. Apparently not the same as Simeones Priscus of Relig. Hist. vi.
115 i.e. near Zeugma, on the Euphrates, opposite Apamea.
116 vide Relig. Hist. v.
117 i.e. round Theodoret's see of Cyrus.
118 Uncle of Eusebius, a "faithful servant of God." Relig. Hist. iv.
119 Relig. Hist. iv. Abbot of Mt. Coryphe nephew of Marianus. He chained his neck to his girdle that he might be compelled to violate the prerogative of his manhood (cf. Ovid. Met i. 85) and keep his eyes on the ground.
120 Vide Relig. Hist. iv. He had a monastery near Antioch.
121 Relig. Hist. vii.
122 cf. the Symeones Priscus of Relig. Hist vi.
123 The disciple of Ephrem Syrus. Vide Soz. iii. 16, and Eph. Syr. Act. S. Abraam.
124 Born at Rhosus. His life is given in Relig. Hist. xi.
125 Relig. Hist. xii. He lived "without bed, lamp, fire, pitcher, pot, box, or book, or anything."
126 Met in his old age by Jerome, to whom he told the story of his life. Born at Edessa, he ended his days at Maronia, near Antioch. Vide Jer. vita Malchi.
127 Flourished c. 309-399. Blind from the age of four, he educated himself with marvellous patience, and was placed by Athauasius at the head of the catechetical school of Alexandria. Jerome called him his teacher and seer and translated his Treatise on the Holy Spirit. Jer. de Vir. Illust. 109.
128 "paideiaj 'Ellhnikhj." His ignorance of languages weakens the force of his dialectic and illustrations. Vid. Dict. Christ. Biog: s. v.
129 Harmonius wrote about the end of the 2nd century, both in Greek and in Syriac. cf. Theod. Haeret. Fabul. Compend. i. 22, where he is said to have learned Greek at Athens.
130 Bardesanes, or Bar Daisan, the great Syrian gnostic, was born in 155. cf. the prologue to the "Dialogues."
131 Gregorius of Nazianzus (in Cappadocia, on the Halys) was so called not as bishop of Nazianzus. He was bishop successively of Sasima, "a detestable little village," - (Carm. xi. 439-446) - and of Constantinople, and was called "Nazianzenus" because his father and namesake was bishop of that see. On his acting as bishop at Nazianzus after his withdrawal from Constantinople, vide note on page 136.
132 A younger brother of Basil, bishop of Caesarea, born about 335; he was bishop of Nyssa, an obscure town of Cappadocia, from 372 to 395. Their parents were Basil, an advocate and Emmelia. Petrus, the youngest of ten children, was bishop of Sebaste.
133 Bishop of Antioch in Pisidia; was present at Constantinople in 381. He was a witness to the will of Gregory of Nazianzus.
134 Vide note on p. 114.
135 Vide note on p. 82.