3 All Mankind (pa=n to\ pla/sma). pla/sma would not be correctly rendered by Creation. It is a word belonging solely to Man, who was formed by the Hand of God, and who, alone among creatures, has to give an account of his past life to his Creator at the Last Day. (Edd. Bened.)

4 Gen. ii. 7.

5 Rom. viii. 29.

6 Col. i. 18.

7 This is the literal version of the passage, which is somewhat loosely quoted from 1 S. Peter iii. 21, where the A.V. renders "the answer of a good conscience towards God," and the R. V., "The interrogation (Marg. inquiry) of a good conscience, etc." The passage is usually explained as referring to the Interrogatories in Holy Baptism, answered by the threefold Vow which enlists us "under Christ's banner against sin, the world, and the Devil," professes the Faith, and promises obedience.

8 1 John i. 5.

9 1 Tim. vi. 16.

10 John i. 9.

11 S. Thomas Aquinas (Summa I qu. 108) seems to solve this question in accordance with the second of these alternatives.

12 fw/j (masc) is a common poetical word for Man. It is probably derived from the root (Indo-Eur. Bha) of fa/w, which also appears in fhmi/ and modified in fai/nw.

13 Prov. vi. 23.

14 Ps. cxix. 105.

15 Exod. xxxiv. 30.

16 Ib. iii. 2.

17 Ex. xiii. 21.

18 2 Kings ii. 11.

19 Luke ii. 9.

20 Matt. ii. 9.

21 Luke ix. 32, 34.

22 Acts ix. 3.

23 Matt. xiii. 43

24 Wisd. iii. 7.

25 Prov. xviii. 3 (lxx.).

26 Luke xiii. 8.

27 Rom. vi. 4; Col. ii. 12.

28 i.e., the Sacred Manhood.

29 Ephes. vi. 16.

30 1 Ki. xix. 11.

31 2 Cor. ii. 11.

32 John vi. 33.

33 Matt. iv. 6.

34 Ps. xci. 14.

35 Heb. x. 4.

36 There is here an untranslatable play upon words.

37 Again a play upon words. Bapti'zesqai is sometimes used in the sense of to be drowned. The word primarily means to Immense, and this of course, when applied to a ship, is to sink her. The practice of immersion in Holy Baptism was undoubtedly universal in the primitive ages, except where in cases of necessity persons were baptized in sickness, or in prison under sentence of death; and in such cases this "Clinic" Baptism, though recognized as valid, and therefore not to be repeated, was viewed as irregular, and disqualified its recipient from subsequently receiving Holy Orders. Affusion was gradually allowed, probably for climatic reasons, to become the prevailing practice of the West, though immersion predominated as late as the Twelfth Century. It is, however, a remarkable fact that the Didache, a Manual of instruction which some date within the lifetime of the Apostles, and nearly all are agreed in placing not later than the early years of the Second Century, expressly permits affusion, without any hint of irregularity, or mention of any circumstance of necessity except scarcity of water.

38 2 Cor. vi. 2.

39 Ephes. v. 14.

40 Isa. xxviii. 19, lxx..

41 Eccl. iii. 1. sq.

42 Some Mss. read "A flooded river."

43 Exod. xii. 22.

44 Prov. iii. 24.

45 Ps. xci. 5.

46 Billius suggests, though without adopting it in his text, a slight conjectural alteration, which would read "Than funeral games and libations:" but this, though it gives a very good sense, is a needless departure from the Mss.

47 Luke ix. 60.

48 The Benedictine Editors punctuate differently, and render "Stand against passions with the assistance (of Baptism), be numbered in the army of God." remarking that David fought Goliath without allies, leaning on God's assistance: and that S. Gregory here certainly means that a Christian who relies on the aid of his Baptism is to stand firm in the battle against the Devil.

49 1 Sam. xvii. 32.

50 Ib. xviii. 7.

51 1 Sam. i.10.

52 Ecclus. xxxii. 3.

53 John ii. 1-11.

54 e'n e'cousia evidently means Tui juris - your own master.

55 Gen. xix. 26.

56 Josh. vi. 25; James ii. 25.

57 Luke xviii. 14.

58 Matt. xx. 1 sq.

59 That S. Gregory did not reject infant Baptism is clear, from the directions given late on in this Oration (c. xxviii; and cf. c. xvii. s. fin.). He is here referring simply to the inability of infants to bring themselves to the font whereby through the mistaken scruples of parents many must have died unbaptized.

60 i.e., The sins which are due altogether to external tyranny do not involve guilt, inasmuch as they are involuntary, whereas the guilt of sin is in the will.

61 Ps. xxxiv. 5.

62 John xii. 35.

63 Ib.i. 4.

64 Prov. vi. 9.

65 Ps. cxli. 4.

66 The Festivals of Easter and Pentecost were set apart as early as the Second Century for the solemn administration of Holy Baptism; and S. Siricius Bishop of Rome about the time of S. Gregory of Nazianzus, states that all the Churches agreed in keeping these exclusively. But this is a mistake (though Van Espen says (II., c. i., tit. 2, c. 4) that S. Siricius acknowledges the existence of the different custom, but condemns it, and gives reference to ad. Himerum Tarraconensem, c. 2), for there is evidence that in many Churches the Epiphany also was thus observed, and in some Christmas also. But Tertullian (De Bapt.) says that no time is unsuitable. In the Western Church, however, Papal decrees, Conciliar Canons, and Imperial Capitularies from the VIth to the XIIIth. Centuries abound, limiting the administration, except in cases of sickness, to the two seasons of Easter and Pentecost, on the Vigils of which it is still provided for in the Missals. No doubt it was felt to be a very useful limitation, when most persons who were presented for Baptism were adults, and required preparation. When this ceased to be the case the rule gradually became obsolete, and has long ceased to be observed.

67 Matt. xxiv. 50.

68 Ps. xlii. 1.

69 Gen. xix. 15. sqq.

70 The allusion is to the well known story of Tantalus, whose punishment in hell was said to be that, being tormented with hunger and thirst, he was condemned to stand for ever in water up to his lips, but to be unable to drink, and to have a tree laden with luscious fruit within easy reach, but to be unable to gather of it.

71 Matt. xi. 12.

72 Prov. i. 11.

73 Ps. xcv. 1.

74 Mic. iv. 2.

75 Matt. xi. 28.

76 The A.V. is here used, as more accurate than the LXX. The passage is quoted freely from Lam. iv. 7.

77 John xx. 3.

78 Prov. iii. 28.