Eunomius: the Manuscripts of the "First Apology"

Eunomius was a leader of the second wave of Arian writers.  His Liber Apologeticus  (ΕΥΝΟΜΙΟΥ ΑΠΟΛΟΓΗΤΙΚΟΣ) was written in 361 AD, and so comprehensively refuted by St. Basil that he did not attempt a reply for 12 years.  The First Apology has been preserved with manuscripts of Basil, Adversus Eunomium, probably to illustrate it.  

The works of Eunomius were condemned to be burned by the emperor Arcadius (Cod. Theodosianus xvi.5.34).  There is some evidence that burnings did take place (Philostorgius, HE xi.5; Nicephorus Callistus, HE xiii.1 [PG 146.925C]; compare also Theodosius' attitude in Sozomen, HE. vii.12 with Chrysostom, Hom. in Matt. 46.1.2 [PG 58.477 middle]).  Several still existed in the 9th century and were reviewed by Photius (Bibliotheca, codex 138).

Chapter 28 is in reality a separate work, a Eunomian creed.  It is unknown whether it is by Eunomius himself.

Siglum

Location

Shelfmark & Notes

Date /
Century

C

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale Codex Parisinus (olim Colbertinus) graecus 965, fos. 1r-17v. Parchment.  24 lines per page.  Each page is 22 x 17 cm.  The Ms. has 215 folios, and contains also Basil, Adversus Eunomium and De Spiritu Sancto. The hand is a clear and legible minuscule making use of few abbreviations or contractions. 

On fos. 1r, 2r, 3r, 4r, 4v, 5r, 5v, 6r, 6v, 7v, 16r (?), 17v a later hand has added a series of negative comments usually consisting of the single word anathema, but in a few cases more extensive.; none of these comments shed any additional light on the text. The closing lines of chapter 28 (21-6) have been crossed out.  These appear on fo. 17v together with the opening chapter of Basil's Adversus Eunomium.   Most Mss. have the passages treated by Basil marked: not so in this one. On fos. 1r-5v, 6v, and 7v a hand of the late fifteenth or early sixteenth century has added a series of extensive comments in Latin. 

In the seventeenth century, this volume formed part of the library of Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-83), and its number in his collection (no. 4529) is written at the top of fo. 1r. Colbert had the volume rebound in red moroccan leather with his arms on the front and his monogram (JBC) repeated several times on the back. 

In 1732 this manuscript entered the Bibliotheque Royale (now the Bibliothèque Nationale) together with the rest of Colbert's collection and has remained there ever since. Unfortunately, there is no information as to its prior history. 

 

11

I Mount Athos, Iviron Monastery Codex Athous monasterii Iviron 354 [376] (Lampros 4474), fos. 1r-16r.  Paper, single column, 25 lines per page, each folio measuring 13.5 x 20.5 cm.  Clear but not wholly regular minuscule with few abbreviations.

Like C, the work also contains Basil, Adversus Eunomium and De Spiritu Sancto.  Several correctors have worked on Adv. Eun., which also has red initials and titles, but none of this has been done for Eunomius' work.  Portions treated by Basil are marked with a stroke in the margin against the line.  Only marginal comment is on f. 12v.  No information on earlier history available.

 

14 (probably)
G Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek. Codex Gudianus graecus 85, fos. 1r-9r.  Paper, single column, 35 lines per page, 21 x 14.5 cm.  Contains only the Apology, but probably once contained the same other works as I and C (although no existing Ms. of Adv. Eun. which might have become detached can be identified).  Written in a clear but highly compressed minuscule with consistent use of abbreviations.  A variant appears in the margin of f.7v which has been passed down to child Mss.  A faint unknown watermark of a bell with a line on either side is visible across the fold between fos. 3r and 6r.  The volume was rebound for the Wolfenbüttel library, pages trimmed and some parts of folio  numbers cut off.  Two blank folios in each case were added at both the start and end.  Passages dealt with by Basil are again marked in the margin.

A marginal comment on f.1r indicates the reluctance of scribes to copy a heretical work.  A couple of other hands have made marginal notes.

For the binding see F. Koehler, Die Gudischen Handschriften (Wolfenbiittel: Verlag Julius Zwissler, 1913), p. 51.

Since the seventeenth century this manuscript has been part of the collection of Marquardus Gudius (1635-89), now in the Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel. Although there is no direct information as to the previous whereabouts of this manuscript, the Italian origin of many of the copies made from it suggests Italy as the most likely possibility.  In view of the copies made by Friedrich Lindenbrog (LW) it appears that this manuscript was acquired during his trip to Italy in 1606-7, though it cannot be excluded that he may have made the copies in Italy (in that case it was presumably bought by Gudius during his trip, 1659-63). 

 

14 (middle or end)
B Münich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Codex Monacensis (sive Bavaricus) graecus 512, fos. 1r-18v.  Parchment, single column of 22 lines, each folio measuring 21.6 x 14.3 cm.  The hand is a neat and clear minuscule making moderate use of contractions and abbreviations and according to N.G.Wilson may perhaps be that of Ioannes Thettalos Scutariotes (fl. c. 1460). Probably a copy of G.  Contains also 3 other short works, 2 of which (Hermiae irrisio gentilium and the Dialogus SS. Basilii et Gregorii) have been passed on to some of its descendants.

On the blank page opposite fo. lr the contents of the manuscript have been written first in Greek, then in Latin, and a number of Latin notes are to be found in the margin of fo. 3V. The passages of the work refuted by Basil are marked in the margin. The binding is Italian, most probably Florentine. A now erased, but still (with difficulty) legible entry on the verso side of the front endpiece informs us that this manuscript formerly belonged to the famous collection of Cardinal Domenico Grimani (1460-1523), son of Doge Antonio Grimani of Venice (1436-1523).  Together with the rest of Cardinal Grimani's library, codex B was given to the library of San Antonio di Castello in Venice; all of the copies of this codex (VMOSAF) can be connected directly or indirectly with this library and more specifically with participants in the Council of Trent (1545-63).  It is not known when or under what circumstances it entered the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Munich, where it now resides.

 

15
V Codex Vossianus graecus Q 13, fos. 22r-38v 16
M Münich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek Codex Monacensis (sive Bavaricus) graecus 58, fos. 294r-308r 16
O Rome, Vatican library Codex Vaticanus Ottobonianus graecus 112, fos. 18r-28r, saeculi xvi (24 October/November 1542).  16 
(24 October/November 1542)
S Codex Vesontionus Sequanorum graecus 408 (Suppl. Gr. D 13), fos. 141r-151r 16
A Milan, Ambrosian library Codex Ambrosianus graecus C 255 inf., fos. 91r-100r 16
F Madrid Codex Matritensis graecus O. 9, tractatus 10 16
P Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale Codex Parisinus suppl. graecus 294, fos. 2r-19v.   Described as 'ex bibliotheca Friderici Lindenbrogii J. C.', it  appears to have belonged to Êmery Bigot (1626-89), as a printed sheet bound into the final page reads 'Avisi da diverse parti, N. 60, 28 jul. 1706'.  This is the date that the library of Bigot was sold to the BNF.  Copy of G. 17 (start)
W Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek. Codex Gudianus graecus 100, pp. 1-147.  Belonged to Friederich Lindenbrog (1573-1648). Copied by Lindenbrog in his capacity as literary agent for the Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein and subsequently sent to the library of Schoss Gottorp, from which it was acquired by Gudius.  Also contains a Latin translation. 17
L Berlin, Deutsche Staatsbibliothek. Codex Lindenbrogius graecus, Hamburg Cod. Theol. 1518 in 4°.  Belonged to Friederich Lindenbrog (1573-1648).    Passed on his death (1648) into the public library of Hamburg.   Twin of W.  Also contains a Latin translation. 17
H Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek. Codex Gudianus graecus 89, pp. 1-147.  Mainly in the hand of Marquardus Gudius (1635-89). 17
T London, Lambeth Palace Library

Codex Tenisonius graecus, Lambeth 802 (a), fos. 1r-22v.  Copy of V, as indicated by note on f.22v, "Vossius a le manuscrit m... (torn) l'a fais copier."  Originally belonged to Archbishop Thomas Tenison of Canterbury (1636-1715).

17
E Cambridge, Emmanuel College Codex Cantabrigiensis Collegii Emmanuelis 249, pp. 1-31.  Copy of T.  Avoids some of E's more glaring errors.  Came to Emmanuel in 1694 from the estate of the non-juror Archbishop William Sancroft, and has numerous notes in his hand.  No doubt a gift to Sancroft, a fellow combatant, from Tenison during the disputes over Socinianism in the 1680's. 17
Y London, Lambeth Palace Library Codex Tenisonius graecus, Lambeth 802 (b), pp. 9-82.  Copy of T, and now bound with it.  Defective, in exactly the way William Cave's printed text (Historia Literaria) is, so presumably the printers' exemplar.  Made by Cave's associate William Wharton on or before January 8th 1687/8. 17
Q Oxford, Kings College Codex Oxoniensis Collegii Reginensis 187, fos. 1r-15v. Derived from E.  A Latin translation is attached (not that of Wharton).  Originally belonged to the NT critic John Mills (1645-1707), and probably in his hand.  Copied from a now-lost MS copy of E belonging to a friend of Sancroft, the non-juror Henry Dodwell (1614-1711), as indicated by a heading in the Ms. 17
R Oxford, Bodleian Library Codex Bodleianus graecus Cherry 25 (9799), pp. 37-88.  Derived from E. A Latin translation is attached (not that of Wharton).  Written by and signed by the well-known non-juror, Sir Francis Cherry (1665-1713).  Copied from a now-lost MS copy of E belonging to a friend of Sancroft, the non-juror Henry Dodwell (1614-1711), as indicated by a note on the final page. 17 end (ca. 1700)
J Cambridge, Trinity College Codex Cantabrigiensis Collegii Sanctissimae et Individuae Trinitatis O.2.3 (1107), fos. 7r-15r.   Formerly in the possession of Roger Gale (1672-1744).  A copy of T, made in great haste by 5 or 6 hands. 18 (start), probably c. 1710.
N Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale Codex Parisinus suppl. graecus 270, fos. 272r-279v.   Belonged to and copied c.1657 for Emery Bigot (1626-89).  contains 523 folios, containing more than 35 extremely diverse other works.   Copy of V.  Also contains the Dialogus SS. Basilii et Gregorii also copied from V, starting at f. 231.  Not written in Bigot's own hand, although a copy of Eunomius Expositio Fidei (ff. 466r-467v) made during a trip to Italy in 1659-1661 is in Bigot's hand.  Used as an exemplar by Valesius (Henri de Valois, 1603-76) for the 1668 extracts.  Acquired by the Maurist abbey of St. Germain-des-Près and thence to the BNF in 1795.  Since Bigots Mss. went to the BNF in 1706, it must  have gone elsewhere before that time, probably because of Bigot's association with the Maurists. 17

Manuscripts C, I and G form the main independent witnesses to the text.  All three seem to derive from a common exemplar in which the text was already joined with Basil's refutation, and with some common marginal warnings, but at some distance from the autograph.  The Revd George Dennis, SJ, who examined the manuscripts, suggested that in his view there is evidence of two separate transcriptions from uncial to minuscule (cited Vaggione, p. 20 n.101).  I and G must derive from a common ancestor, although not recently: 8  times they have a mistake which C does not have; they share a common omission, while I agrees with C against G only 3 times and C and G against I only four.  This suggest two  groups of Mss. originally descended from a common exemplar which have had time to grow distinct.

It is possible to gain some additional information from the text tradition of Basil Adversus Eunomium.  There are 14 Mss of this which belong to the same family as the copies in C and I.  But only C and I contain the text of Eunomius, which suggests the reluctance of the copyists to copy this obviously heretical work, as does the warning on f.1.  Hayes (see below) indicates that the text of I is closely related to the 9th century Ms. D (Cod. Athous monasterii Vatopedi 68) and 14th century Ms. g (Codex Athous monasterii Vatopedi 58).  "Since I is itself an Athonite manuscript, it is not unreasonable to suppose that all three ultimately derive from an original formerly on Athos and that manuscript G is from a similar source. This supposition is considerably strengthened by the discovery that in the mid-fourteenth century there was a considerable revival of interest in Eunomius in connection with the Palamite controversy. Since it can be demonstrated that participants in the controversy had actually read Eunomius' apology, and codices G and I date from just this time, it seems likely that we owe the preservation of this work in part to the passions stirred up by the Palamite controversy."  Codex G probably entered Italy in connection with the Council of Florence (1438-55).

B is most likely a copy of G: VMOSAF are all derived from B.  PWLH are late copies of those already discussed.  Manuscripts TEYQRJN are all direct or indirect copies of V, when it was in England and in the possession of Isaac Vossius (1618-89), who had become a Canon of Windsor (!)  under Charles II. All of these manuscripts except N can be associated with one or another,of the participants in the late 17th- and early 18th-century controversies over Socinianism and Arianism in England. J seems to have been made in great haste, probably for William Whiston (1667-1752) who published the first English translation from it during the controversy.  "The translation is clearly based on a manuscript derived from V and is very probably a rendering of J. Though the translation is frequently perceptive, Whiston was more concerned to present a clear exposition of his own 'Eusebian' position than to render the thought of Eunomius exactly."  The first complete Greek text was not printed until 1721.

Indirect Tradition

Since it is quoted by Basil, his work also supplies information about the text.  However Basil frequently paraphrased, and there is also some evidence that our Mss. of Eunomius were influenced by Basil, and vice versa.  The quotations of the Liber Apologeticus made by Gregory of Nyssa are most likely from Basil.

Chapter divisions, titles

[No information]

Stemma

Bibliography

Richard Paul VAGGIONE, Eunomius: the extant works.  Oxford Early Christian Texts,  Oxford (1987).  This page is abbreviated from this excellent volume.

W.M.HAYES, The Greek Manuscript Tradition of (Ps.) Basil's Adversus Eunomium Books IV-V. Leiden (1972).  Not checked.

Richard Paul VAGGIONE, 'The Other Half of a Controversy: The Rediscovery of one of Basil's Opponents in Renaissance Italy', in Proceedings of the Patristics, Medieval, and Renaissance Conference [Villanova, PA] 6 (1981), pp. 101-16.  Not checked -- I haven't been able to locate this.

Richard Paul VAGGIONE, 'An Appeal to Antiquity: The Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Manuscripts of the Heretic Eunomius', inArianism: Historical and Theological Reassessments, ed. Robert C. Gregg (The Philadelphia Patristic Foundation, 1985), pp. 335-60. Checked.  A super article on the English Mss.

M. VOGEL and V. GARDTHAUSEN, Die griechischen Schreiber des Mittelalters und Renaissance (= Centralblatt für Bibliothekswesen, Beiheft 33 [Leipzig, 1909]), pp. 197-8; for Scutariotes. Scutariotes' dated manuscripts run from 1442 to 1494.  Not checked.

William WHISTON, M.A., Primitive Christianity Reviv'd i-iv (London: Printed for the Author; And are to be Sold by the Booksellers of London and Westminster. 1711), i, pp. 1-30; iv, appendix pp. 50-3.  Checked.

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