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Page 23, Line 1 -- Valentiniani -- Note that the heretical
views condemned by T are not necessarily those of Valentinus.
For a comparison of Valentinus' views with those of later
schools and a review of literature on the topic see G. Quispel, 
"The Original Doctrine of Valentine," VC, I (1949), 43-73;
Sagnard, La Gnose. Neither of these were aware of the Valen-
tinus' own Gospel of Truth. See Introduction, p. 16.
Page 23, Line 3 -- disciplina non terretur -- Because they
considered salvation theirs by natural right. See Adv. Val. 
29-30, Iren. 1.5.6.
Page 23, Line 5 -- conscientiae officium -- The word "con-
scientia" usually has a bad sense. It embraces the idea of
self-consciousness, often of evil: "recentem Liviae con-
scientian exagitare," T. Ann. 4.12; "conscientia, cum sit in-
firma," Vulgate I Cor. 8:12; "nulla conscientia de culpa," 
Sall. Cat. 35.2. It also includes our sense of "Conscience,"
usually bad: "adversarium . . . erubuisse, expaluisse . . . quae

signa conscientiae sint," Rhet. Her. 2-5.8; "ante conscientia
timidum suspiciosumque faciebat," Cic. Verr. 6.74; "ipsa sibi
carnifex conscientia est," Paneg. 12.43. Other senses are
"cognizance" and "consciousness." The mss. reading implies
that the Valentinians assume this duty because of their guilty
consciences (cp."conscientiae omnium, sc. gentium," Apol. 15.7).
This is a reasonable interpretation. Scaliger's "offucium"
implies that the Valentinians becloud their disciples' know-
ledge of right and wrong. (Same sense in "apud conscientias
pulsare," Apol. 9.6.) The latter is possible, but I think the
change unnecessary.
        For a later development of "conscientia"--"bad con-
science," cp. "utrique vero venia atque impunitas conscien-
tiae," i.e., complicity, T. More, Utopia, ed. E. Sturtz and
J. Hexter (New Ha:=gin, 1965), p. 78.
Page 23, Line 9 -- epoptas -- Individuals in their second
year of initiation (Souda Lexicon). The mss. reading caused
by ignorance of this rare word.
Page 23, Line 9 -- ante -- "antes." T avoids "antes." cp.
"ante plumbum. . . sunt dei vestri," Apol. 12; "fidelis et gus-
tus vini illius, licet aquae ante," De an. 17.14. See
Schrijnen-Mohrmann, Vol. I, 131; Lofstedt, Zur Sprache,p. 88 f.

Page 24, Line 5 -- falsis -- Abl. pl. of falsum. Cp. "etsi
commotus ingenio simulationum tamen falsa in sinu avi perdidi-
cerat," Tac. Ann. 6.45
Page 24, Line 6 -- sanctis nominibus -- Cp. Iren. 3.15.3,
where he also makes the same point that the Valentinians
seduce many by their pretense of believing the same as the
church, "simulantes nostrum tractatum." This whole section
of Adv. Val. is loosely adapted from Iren. 3.15.
Page 24, Line 8 -- facili caritate -- Vexed. The word must
describe either the Valentinians' action in inventing stories
or the source of the stories, the "nomina," "tituli," and
"claritate" and "argumenta." "claritate" gives no clear mean-
ing in either case and is open to the suspicion that an "l"
has crept in from "facili." Fredouille's conjecture is attrac-
tive (referring to the Valentinians' action--"with obvious
ease"; cp. "habent instruendis erroribus facilitatem," De
praes. 39.2, also Adv. Nat. 2.14.9. But "caritate" involves
leis change. "caritate" refers sarcastically to I Cor. 13.
the patient and kind love which endures all also endures the
Valentinians' distortions. For a juxtaposition of the cog-
nates, cp. "The obsession for beauty, for order, for clarity--
why should I not add 'for charity'--that is what underlies the
spirit of creation, which is the true seat of resistance."

Henry Miller, "Tribute to France," in The Henry Miller Reader,
ed. Lawrence Durrell (New York, 1959), p. 283.
Page 24, Line 9 -- succedere -- Superior to Kroymann's "suc-
cidere," in the sense of "help," "relieve"; moreover, "succi-
dere" is usually constructed with the dative in T; cp. "condi-
tioni suae succedunt," Apol. 27; "nulls omnio tactui succi-
disset." Adv. Marc. IV.8. See Hoppe, Syntax und Stil, p. 30.
Page 24, Line 11 -- si bona fide. . . -- Same thought in
Irenaeus: "et si aliquis quidem ex his qui audiunt eos quae-
rat solutiones vel contradicat eis, hunc quasi non capientem
veritatem, et non habentem de superioribus a matte sua semen
affirmantes in totum nihil dicunt ei .. . . supercilio incedit
gallinacei elationem habens...fingunt quodam supercilio
gravitatem," Iren. 3.15.2.
Page 24, Line 15 -- astuta simplicitate -- Thornell's conjec-
ture (Patristica, p. 22) is certainly correct. The mss. "tuam
simplicitatem sua caede" makes no sense, because it implies
that the Valentinians give up in the face of such simple
mindedness. Kroymann's "fatua" is on the right track but
omits T's irony. Their "simplicitas" is their reluctance to
discuss the complexities of their doctrine with outsiders.
T's point is that this tactic is "astuta" because the dispu-
tant cannot get enough information to make an effective

refutation. It is evident from Valentinus' Gospel of Truth
and from Ptolomaeus' Letter to Flora that there was a distinc-
tion between esoteric and exoteric doctrines. T is reproduc
ing the exoteric, presumably. (See Introduction, p. 17.) On
"dispergunt," cp. "severitatem dispergit," De pat. 13.3;
"dispergere poenam," Apol. 5.6.
Page 25, Lines 1-2 -- docendo . . . suadendo -- The ablative
of the gerund in place of the present participle is extremely
common in T, as in most Latin writers of the Empire. The
usage occurs in earlier Latin: cp. "defessa iam sum misera
te ridendo," Ter. Eun. 1008; also examples in Catullus and
Cicero. It becomes common from Livy's time. For details see
Leumann-Hofmann-Szantyr II 380 and for T, Hoppe, Syntax und
Stil, p. 56. This usage survives in Romance, cp. Sp. "est-
ando," Fr., "Chantant."
Page 25, Line 4 -- sapientes -- Irenaeus, " gnwstikoi/ ."
Page 25, Line 12 -- spectatur -- Cp., "in simplicitate cor-
dis quaerite illum. . . . apparet autem eis qui fidem habent in
illum," Sapientia 1:1-2 (Vulgate). The latter phrase adds
conviction to Engelbrecht's conjecture. "exspectat" offers
no good sense; "ex-" may have arisen from duplication of "dei."

Page 25, Line 14 -- testimonium -- Kroymann marks a lacuna
after "Christi" and expunges "sanguine. .. non erant." The
text can be retained taking "vocem" as first person subjunc-
tive of "voco." For the thought, cp. "fratres, nolite pueri
effici sensibus, sed malitia parvuli estote: sensibus autem
perfecti estote," I Cor. 14:20 (Vulgate).
Page 25, Line 19 -- dedit -- Kroymann's reading is correct
because T is citing Paul, not setting down his own rule. (See
previous note.)
Page 26, Lines 1-2 -- columba . . . solita est -- I. e., at
Christ's baptism, Mark 1:10. On this passage and on doves in
general in antiquity see F. J. Dolger, "Unserer Taube Haus,"
Antike und Christentum, II (1930), 41-56. He refutes the view
that this passage tells us anything about the construction of
churches in T's time.
Page 26, Line 9 -- detrudat -- Equals "se detrudat." T often
uses transitive verbs in a reflexive sense: "intimat"--"se
intimat," Scor. I; "impegerit" = "se impegerit," Apol. 9.17;
"suspendere" = "se suspendere," De pall. 3; "colligemus"= "nos
colligemus," De fuga 14; "derivarat" _ "se derivarat," Adv. Val.
9. See Hoppe, Syntax und Stil, p. 63; Lofstedt, Zur Sprache,

p. 19. Irenaeus also compares the Valentinians to serpents
following Matt. 23:33: "progenies viper arum," Iren. 4.68.1.
Page 26, Line 12 -- orientem Christi -- Cp., "adducam servum
meum Orientem," Zech. 3:8 (Vulgate), which treats the Hebrew
word, <hebrew> as a name, just as "Christus" from <hebrew> 
is taken as a personal name.
Page 27, Lines 3-4 -- recordabitur se -- Engelbrecht. With
"audisse" I can make no sense out of "dabitur." "Audisse"
must be in indirect discourse depending on a verb of saying,
etc. "Recordabitur" is the easiest change. As for "se," the
whole passage is addressed to a Christian or Valentinian plan-
ning to convert a pagan; note "initietur," not "initieris."
In this context "te" is wrong.
Page 27, Line 5 -- ex alia conscientia -- Kroymann's "aliqua"
is possible with the sense, "some prodding of conscience," but
it is not necessary. Here "conscientia" has the meaning,
"knowledge, doctrines"; cp. "adversus conscientiam," De an. 17.
"Alia" means the convert is coming from another system of
knowledge or belief, pagan or Christian. This whole passage
is derived from Paul, "neque intenderent fabulis et genealogiis
interminatis," I Tim. 1:4 (Vulgate).
Page 27, Line 7 -- genimina -- A "Christianism" first occur-

ring in the Itala Matt. 3:7. See Waszink on De an. 21.4.
Page 27, Line 15 -- ceterum -- Here has the adversative sense
of " a)lla& " as in "etsi sunt qui dicuntur dei ceterum unus
deus pater," Adv. Herm. 4; "licet alia sit species qualitatis
. . .ceterum quid est sanguis quam rubens humor?" De carne 9.
"ceterum immundi essent filii vestri," Ad ux. II.2; "ceterum
non esset anima," Adv. Marc. II.9. See Hoppe, Syntax und
Stil, pp. 108-9.
Page 27, Line 16 -- scimus -- The reading in P is unclear;
it may be "scimus" as well.
Page 27, Line 16 -- armavimus -- The perfect is superior to
Kroymann's "armabimus" because of the present tense "auspica-
mur" below.
Page 28, Line 9 -- semitam nactus -- Oehler's reading is an
easy correction that makes sense out of the following "viam
delineavit." The metaphor continues in "tramites quosdam."
Page 28, Line 10 -- Colorbaso -- Evidence for this obscure
heresiarch is found in Iren. 1.14.1, 1.12.7 and (T) Adv. omnes
haer. 5. The name is quite certain. The mss. reading "colu-
broso" may have crept in here from the end of Chapter II, where

snakes are mentioned. The copyist was misled by the super-
ficial resemblance and the unfamiliarity of Colorbasus' name.
A difficulty is that (T) Adv. omnes haer. and Iren. 1.12.7
imply that Colorbasus followed Ptolomaeus. Epiphanius says
the same: " a)po th~j tou~ Ptolemai/ou r(i/zhj skolo&pwn "
(Panarion XXXV, Migne, Vol. 41, Col. 627). I presume T mis-
understood Irenaeus or simply slipped here. This is another
evidence T knew no Gnostics of this school.
Page 28, Line 12 -- substantias -- I.e., the aeons. "sub-
stantia" here almost equals "corpus," cp. "istae species
probolai/ sunt earum substantiarum ex quibus prodeunt,"
Adv. Prax. 8.5. In this case the "corpora" are "sensus, effec-
tus, motus." For an extensive discussion of the word and con-
cept of "substantia," see E. Evans' introduction to his edi-
tion of Adv. Prax. (London, 1948), and an answer by G. C.
Stead, "Divine Substance in Tertullian," JTS, XIV (1963),46-66.
Page 28, Lines 13-14 -- affectus, motus -- There is no need
to insert an "et." For this omission, so common in T, cp.
"taceo Nerones et Apicios, Rufos," De pall. 5.7; "affecte et
anxie, passibiliter," De an. 45.4. For an extensive discus-
sion of such "variatio," see G. Säflund, De Pallio, Lund,
1955, p. 79 ff.

Page 29, Line 6 -- charisma -- A "Christianism" meaning
"spiritual gifts of grace." The word is used by T mainly in
referring to his Montanist brethren (De an. 9.3), although it
can be used in orthodox contexts, e.g., Justin Dial. c. Trypho
82.88, and Jerome, Adv. Rufin. 2.25.
Page 29, Lines 6-7 -- unitatem non diversitatem -- The two
nouns are used as adjectives equalling "nec unum sed diversum
sue. ingenium." Similar expressions in "furnuculus (= furax)
praeses," De fuga 12.3; "apud monstrum (= monstruosum) erudi-
torem," De pall. 4.2; "sacerdos (= sacerdotalis) suggestus,"
ibid. 4.1. For discussion, see Hoppe, Syntax und Stil, p. 94,
and Bulhart, p. L. Consequently there is no need to under-
stand "negant" as does Kroymann. For the thought, cp. Iren.
3.12.7, who compares the diversity of heretics with the unity
of the church; T expresses the same in De praes. 37.7, 41.4,
Page 29, Line 11 -- colores -- A double metaphor: (1) con-
times the metaphor of a face which is being made-up. Same
metaphor in Iren. 3.15.2, "exquirens fucos error; sine fuco
est veritas." (2) The make-up is rhetoric. "Colores" is
used as in the elder Seneca's Oratorum et Rhetorum Sententiae,
Divisiones, Colores. Also note Juvenal 6.237.

Page 29, Line 18 -- Iustinus -- In the lost Syntagma, pre-
sumably, which is mentioned in Justin, Apology 26.
Page 30, Line 2 -- Proculus noster -- Montanist bishop about
whom little is known. He is mentioned in Eusebius H.E. III.31.4,
II.25.6, VI.20.3 and was a character in the lost work, "Dia-
logue of Gaius vs. the Montanists and Proculus." For the de-
tails see Harnack, Geschichte, 11.2, 206.
Page 30, Line 13 -- proinde -- The adverb takes over the
function of an adjective meaning "corresponding to (the orig-
inal Greek)." Note a similar use in "censum proinde eum,"
Adv. Val. 25; "non perinde animo," De an. 34.3. See Waszink's
note on the latter passage.
Page 31, Line 3 -- congestionem -- I retain with the sense
"total attack." The noun does not seem to occur with that
meaning elsewhere (it usually means "crowd"), but the verb
"congestis telis," Tac. Ann. 2.11; "mala alicui congerere,"
Seneca Controversiae 1.7.2. "Congressionem" is entirely inap-
propriate since T is beginning his advance or attack by this
narration. He is saying, not that he will not attack them,
but that he will not finish them off.

Page 31, Line 5 -- transpunctatoria -- See previous note.
He is not making a final attack, hence a negative of "trans-
functatoria" (= "careless," "negligent") would mean he is
making a final attack. The rare word "transfunctatoria" has
a pejorative sense in T: cp. "transfunctatoria praecepta sc.
dei Marcionis," Adv. Marc. I.27.1. Such a sense T would not
apply to his own works. For "transpunctatoria," cp. Cael.
Aur. Tard. 3.4.66 (a medical work). 
Page 31, Line 8 -- adornentur -- X has preserved the correct
reading; cp. Fronto (ed. Naver, p. 151-8), "orationem adornare."
"Adorare" is possible here but does not fit the context; T is
not referring to the Valentinian deities who are being wor-
shipped, "adorare." Instead he is referring to the stories,
which are being decorated or elaborated by the seriousness
with which they are heard. The stories have been "decorated"
by the Valentinians (not "worshipped"); T is warning his read-
ers not to do the same.
Page 31, Line 15 -- nomine -- Used for "causa." This usage
occurs in Cicero, "classis nomine pecunia quaeruntur," Fl.
12.27, but is especially frequent in T; cp. "communis sapien-
tiae nomine," De cor. 7; "ecclesiae protegendae nomine," Adv.

Val. 28. Hoppe, Syntax und Stil, p. 30.
Page 32, Line 3 -- disposita -- X has preserved the correct
reading. "Dispono" means "to put in regular order"; cp. "lib-
ros confusos antea disponere," Cic. Att. 4.8; "ministeria
principatus in equites Romanos disponere," Tac. H. 1.58; "de-
pono" means "to entrust to, give to"; cp. "pecunias in pub-
lica fide deponere." With the expression "in aedicularum
forma" the former seems better.
Page 32, Line 3 -- sint -- Rhenanus' change to "sunt" is
unnecessary; "sint" is subjunctive of concession. Same usage
below in "sit itaque Bythos" and in "sit fur, sit sacrilegus,
at est bonus imperator," Cic. Verr. 5.4.
Page 32, Line 6 -- Insulam Feliculam -- A famous apartment
house in Rome beside the Pantheon and the Column of Marcus
Aurelius (CIL I.206).
Page 32, Line 9 -- Propa&tora ff. -- The mss. have mutila-
ted the Greek. The correct text can be restored from Irenaeus.
Page 32, Line 10 -- Bython -- Irenaeus spells the name thus.
The mss. of T have "Bythion" throughout. This may be due to
confusion between "Bythos Pater" and "Bythios," an aeon men-
tioned in Adv. Val. 8. The corruption is easily removed by

comparison with Irenaeus.
Page 32, Line 15 -- huiusmodi -- I.e., speculations.
Page 32, Line 16 -- sit itaque -- Kroymann's change is un-
necessary. "Sit" is subjunctive of concession. See note on
"sint" above.
Page 33, Line 2 -- Ennoian -- F. Burkitt, "A Note on Valen-
tinian Terms," JTS, 1923, 64-7, suggests the translation
Pale 33, Line 4 -- movere ... de -- This expression is quite
unusual; "movere ad" or "movere ex" are of course quite common.
However "de" is T's favorite preposition, one which he uses
with any ablative. Here the sense is "concerning," "in regard
to." Parallel passages are "ut Scipionem de habitu salu-
tasset," De pall. 1.2; "Abraham sacrificare de filio iusserat,"
De orat. 8; "iubeor . .. de omni substantia deligere," Scor. 4.
Note especially the latter two examples with verbs of order-
ing. Other examples in Hoppe, Syntax und Stil, pp. 33-4, 38;
Hartel, Patr. St. IV.45 ff.; Bulhart, p. xxx.
Page 33, Line 10 -- Patris -- Note that T uses "Pater" refer-
ring to Bythos, not to Monogenes. Irenaeus follows the same
practice. The one exception in both authors is "ipse pater"
immediately following. See Sagnard, La Gnose, pp. 325-333.

Page 33, Line 12 -- agnoscitur -- Kroymann's adoption of
"adgnascitur" is unnecessary. Both are law terms. I quote
from A. Berger, Encyclopedia Dictionary of Roman Law, Phila-
delphia, 1953, p. 358:
agnasci--To enter by birth (or by adoption) into the
agnatic group...primarily in reference to a person
(son or grandson) born after the death of a testator.
He becomes the testator's heir (heres suus).
agnatio--The relationship among persons (agnati) who
are under the paternal power (patria potestas) of the
same head of a family (pater familias) or who would
have been if he were still alive.
agnoscere liberum (partum)--To acknowledge the pater-
nity of a child.
It is obvious that "agnoscere" is meant here; "adgnascere" is
too technical a word and besides does not fit the meaning.
Page 34, Line 2 -- universitatis -- This word does not mean
"universe," but "corporation," "society," "company." This
term is from juridical Latin; cp. Digest 1.8.6, Gai. Inst. 2.11.
Page 34, Line 13 -- utriusque naturae -- I.e., male and
Page 34, Line 14 -- illac Homo . . . procreaverunt -- In
plainer language: Sermo and Vita produced Homo and Ecclesia
plus ten others; Homo and Ecclesia produced twelve ("duos

amplius"). Hence Homo and Ecclesia plus ten = the twelve pro-
duced by Homo and Ecclesia.
Page 34, Line 17 -- Bythios ff. -- The spelling of these
names varies in the mss. I have adopted Irenaeus' spelling.
Page 35, Line 8 -- Phosphorus -- The explanation of this 
joke was first given by F. J. Dölger, "Der Rhetor Phosphorus,"
Antike und Christentum, V, 272-4. The listeners interpreted
"Victoria," "Felicitas," etc., as names, members of Phos-
phorus' family. "Familiae" of course is dative, not genitive
as older editors assumed. This joke may have been prompted
by Irenaeus' statement, " 'Iou~, 'Iou~, kai\ feu~ feu~.  to_ tra-
giko_n w(j a)lh qw~j e)peipei=n "(1.11.4).

Page 35, Line 16 -- quaternarii -- Kroymann adds "et den-
arii" following Irenaeus' " kai\ deka&da " (1.1.3). The text
however is correct: T is using Irenaeus' threefold division 
" ei0s o)gdoa&da, deka&da, dwdeka&da " substituting "octo-
narii" for deka&da and "quaternarii" for " o)gdoa&da ."
T's changes are logical since four is the primary division of
aeons, then eight as the chief aeons, then twelve as the most
recently mentioned children of Homo and Ecclesia. T is using
the most important numbers in the Valentinian system. Iren-
aeus on the other hand is citing the most recently mentioned
numbers: eight main aeons, ten children of Sermo and Vita,

twelve children of Homo and Ecclesia.
Page 36, Line 8 -- illis maerentibus -- On the longing of
the aeons to know the father, note Valentinus' Gospel of Truth,
tr. W. W. Isenberg in Grant, Gnosticism, p. 151:
He (i.e., the Father) reveals his hidden self (his
hidden self is his son) so that through the compassion
of the Father the aeons may know him, end their weary-
ing search for the Father, and rest themselves in him,
knowing that this is rest.
Ptolomy here has hypostasized these actions into the "per-
sonales substantias" mentioned above (Adv. Val. 4).
Page 36, Line 13 -- sui -- I.e., of Propater ( Propate&ra
Page 36, Line 17 -- viderit -- Common in T in the sense
"make no difference," "be irrelevant." Cp. "sed viderit per-
sona, cum doctrina mihi quaestio est," Adv. Herm. 1.4; also
De cor. 13.2, De cult. 1.3.2.
Page 36, Line 17 -- soloecismus -- I.e., "novissima aeon."
Page 36, Line 18 -- Theleti -- M. R. Braun, Deus Christian-
orum (Paris, 1962), 580 ff., proposes that "Philetus" (the mss.
reading) is T's ironic spelling for Theletus in this part of

this treatise. He assumes "Philetus" would be a quasi
synonym for Theletus. I think this unlikely: " qe&lhtoj "
almost certainly has the sense here of "Design," "Plan," hence
the words would not be synonyms. Secondly, the confusions and
misspellings evident in the mss. make "filetus" an easy mis-
take for Theletus. See F. C. Burkitt, "Valentinian Terms,"
JTS 1923, 64-7.
Page 37, Line 1 -- vitii -- " pa&qoj ," Iren. 1.2.2.
Page 37, Line 11 -- fundamentum -- " sthri/zonta ," Iren.
1.2.2 .
Page 37, Line 14 -- inclinata -- This word has the sense
"un-successful," "going downhill"; cp. "ab excitata fortuna ad
inclinatam et prope iacentem," Cic. Fam. 2.16.1; "rerum in-
clinata ferre," i.e., troubles. Stat. Sil. 6.119. Kroymann's
"declinata" is unnecessary.
Page 37, Line 15 -- Enthymesis -- F. C. Burkitt, "Valentin-
ian Terms," JTS 1923, 64-7, suggests the translation "Dis-
ordered Fancy."
Page 37, Line 15 -- animationem -- A rare word; it also oc-
curs in Adv. Marc. II.3, De an. 19.5, and once before T in
"divinae animationis," Cic. Tim. 10. See Waszink's note on
De an. 19.5.

Page 37, Line 15 -- passione -- T's calque of " pa&qoj "
for which he used "vitium" above. The sense of " pa&qoj "
in philosophical writings is wide; one strong element here is
the Stoic idea of " pa&qoj " as excessive or irrational im-
pulses verging on disease. Note Cato's comment in Cicero,
De finibus 3.35 where he observes that the literal translation
of " pa&qoj " would be "morbus," although he goes on to use
the colorless "perturbatio." Sophia follows the Stoic ideal
in having her "passio" removed completely. See J. M. Rist,
Stoic Philosophy (Cambridge 1969), 25 ff.
Page 38, Line 6 -- concepit -- The mss. reading is to be pre-
ferred to Kroymann's "concipit" because of the clausula. Of
T's clausula, the most common is - u - u (32.5%). The next
most common is - u - - u (29%), which is the pattern of
"concepit." - u - u u , the pattern of "concipit," occurs
only four times in T. Hence I retain "concepit." On this
passage, see Lofstedt, Zur Sprache, p. 23; on clausulae, see
Hoppe, Syntax und Stil p. 154 ff., and J. Waszink,"The Tech-
nique of the Clausula in Tertullian's De Anima," VC, II (1950),
Page 38, Line 12 -- suscipit -- Used in a reflexive sense

equivalent to "se suscipit"; see above on "detrudat" (Adv.
Val. 3). Note Irenaeus' expression, " labei=n e)pistrofh&n "
(Iren. 1.2.4). "Suspicit" is the easy copyist's change for the
more difficult expression.
Page 39, Line 5 -- femina-marem -- Rigaltius' "femina-mare"
is possible in apposition to "imagine sua," but because of
Irenaeus' testimony, I prefer to keep it in apposition to
"Horon": " 3Oron . . . proba&lletai e)n ei0ko&ni i0di/a| a)su&zugon 
a)qh&luton " (Iren. 1.2.4).
Page 39, Line 11 -- appendicem -- " tw~| e)piginome&nw| pa&qei ,"
Iren. 1.2.4. Irenaeus Latinus also uses the word "appendix"
in this passage. "cum appendice passione"; this has been cited
as proof that T used Irenaeus Latinus (A. d'Ales, "Note," REG,
XXIX (1916), pp. xlviii-xlix). The word is, however, a stan-
dard medical term and could well be used by both authors inde-
pendently: "(medicus) de its tussiculis quae aliarum fuerint
appendices passionum. . . ," Caelius Aurelianus Chronics II
8.114. "Impetum" below is another medical term.
Page 39, Line 12 -- crucifixam -- " a)posterhqh~nai ,"
Iren. 1.2.5, for which Harvey prefers the reading, " a)po-
staurwqh~nai " (note ad loc.). The expression comes from Paul,
"to have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires,"
Gal. 5:24.

Page 39, Lines 13-14 -- impetum -- Another medical term mean-
ing a fit or an attack of a disease, an inflammation: "si
minor impetus, minus acrem curationem requirat," Celsus 6.6.1;
"radix cannabis emollit podagras et similes impetus," Pliny,
Nat. Hist. 20.259. Enthymesis is a disease of Sophia.
Page 40 Line 5 -- excludit -- This word is used elsewhere
of birds hatching out their eggs: "gallinae avesque reliquae
cum ex ovis pullos excluserint," Cic. N.D. II 52.129. The use
of such a metaphor is typical of T's style in this treatise;
note that Sophia was compared to a hen above (Adv. Val. 10,
p. 38, line 6).
Page 40, Line 5 -- copulationem -- Note that all aeons came
in pairs of male and female. T balks at this pairing of two
males. The fact that <hebrew> (spirit) is feminine in Hebrew and
Syriac (a fact presumably unknown to T) explains how this
union came about. On this topic, see Sagnard, La Gnose,
p. 164 ff.
Page 40, Line 7 -- vulneratur -- Presumably T is referring
to the crucifixion, when the Spirit Left Christ: "tradidit
spiritum," John 19:30. This sarcastic passage is T's own;
there is no equivalent in Irenaeus. 

Page 40, Lines 12-13 -- generandi agnitionem -- Christ shows
them how to get some idea of the Father, who had been com-
pletely unknown before; cp. "solus ille Nus ex omnibus immensi
Patris fruitur notione," Adv. Val. 9. They are not regaining
knowledge. Hence Kroymann's "regenerandi" is wrong.
Page 40, Line 16 -- ne nos et illud -- "Ne" is the exclama-
tory adverb with pronouns; cp. below, "ne ego temerarius,"
Adv. Val. 32. Here the sense is "we do the same thing i.e.
have Christ as mediator." Same thought in "per eum se cog-
nosci et coli deus voluit," Apol. 21.28.
Page 41, Line 4 -- expedire -- "Experire" in the sense "to
experience" would be difficult here: the translation would be,
"they imply that God is experienced, not comprehended, since
his incomprehensible part is the basis of immortality." This
does not fit the context, and is a non sequitur. "Expedire"
is the easiest correction that makes sense.
Page 42, Line 2 -- diffundebatur -- Middle voice; cp. "amici
quas diffundantur," Cic. Lael. 13.
Page 42, Line 4 -- omni -- Equivalent to "plenus," "perfec-
tus." Cp. "omnis providentia dei," Adv. Marc. II.5; "omnem

notitiam apostoli," De pud. 16. See Thörnell, Stud. Tert. 2.55.
Note also the reverse use of "toti" for "omnes," as in "iota
suspiria epoptarum," Adv. Val. I, supposedly a usage from
spoken Latin; see Leumann-Hofmann Szantyr II.203.
Page 42, Line 7 -- symbolam -- " sumbolh& ," picnic. The
word occurs in Latin from the time of Plautus, "symbolarum
collatores [note "ex acre collaticio" below] apud forum pis-
carium," Curculio 4.1.13. The aeons are jumping for joy and
are having a feast. See A. d'Ales, "Symbola," Recherches de
Science Religieuse, XXV (1935), 496.
Page 42, Line 15 -- collaticio -- "Collected" or "pooled"
money. Same word in "sepultura collaticia," Quint. Decl. 6.
I have changed the metaphor in the translation from one of
picnicking to one of gambling.
Page 43, Line 3 -- Osciae scurris -- Kroymann's reading is
best paleographically. "Oscis" is also possible; cp. "Oscos
ludos," Cic. Fam. 7.7.1.
Page 43, Line 3 -- Pancapipannirapiam -- This otherwise un-
known word looks like a compound of "pan" and "capere" and
"pannus" and "rapere." For a shorter example, cp. "inter
pinnirapi cultos iuvenes," Juv. 3.158. T is being satirical
about the aeons' talents in building up Jesus.

Begins with material from Iren. 1.3.1 and continues with Iren.
1.4.1. It is written as an intermission skit to a play. T is
speaking as the producer.
Page 43, Line 9 -- professionem -- " pragmatei/a ," Iren.
Page 43, Line 16 -- proicite -- The word has presented dif-
ficulties to editors (see app. crit.). The sense of "reject,"
"despise," can be paralleled in "proicit ampullas et verba,"
Hor. AP. 97-8; "proicere virtutem," Caes. B.G. 2.15. T is
making sure his readers know the correct attitude to take to-
ward this play.
Page 44, Line 5 -- Achamoth -- This name is derived from the
Hebrew <hebrew> (i.e., hokhmoth), "wisdom," used frequently
in Proverbs 9.1 ff., and hypostatized. See G. Quispel, "Gnos-
ticism and the New Testament," VC, XVIII (1964), 63-85.
Page 44, Line 5 -- scripta -- Fredouille's conjecture is
most economical. The construction of a conjunction with a
participle is common in T: "misellum vocas eum non utique quod
de bono vitae ereptum," Test. an. 4; "exspectans animam quasi

nondum conlatam et quasi iam ereptam," De an. 43; "quasi
sciens," Adv. Marc. IV. 9; "quid, cum domestici eos vobis pro
dentes," Ad nat. 1.7.15. See Hoppe, Syntax und Stil. p. 59,
and for a complete review of literature on this subject in
later Latin authors, see Waszink, note on De an. 1.3.
Page 44, Line 9 -- defectiva -- Offers a perfectly satisfac-
tory sense. Kroymann's "vexativa" occurs nowhere else in the
passive sense required here; it always means "causing annoy-
Page 44. Line 15 -- suppararetur -- First used by T. The
word also occurs above in Chapter IV and in De an. 25.9, 30.5;
Adv. Marc. IV.34; Iei. 4; De cult. II.7.1.The sense is "to
fit or adjust."
Page 45, Line 3 -- ex angelo -- The S.S. mentioned pre-
viously which corresponds on a higher level to Achamoth on a
Page 45, Line 10 -- Iao -- Represents the form of the Hebrew
tetragrammaton hwhy adopted by Gnostic writers.
Page 45, Line 13 -- Laureolum -- This famous and gruesome
mime is also mentioned in Suet. Cal. 57; Juv. 8.187. It inclu-
ded the crucifixion of the hero.

Page 45, Line 14 -- intricata -- " dia_ to_ sumpeple&xqai 
tw~| paqei ," Iren. 1.4.1.
Page 45, Line 18 -- conditione -- "Conditio" applies to the
creation of a thing and to qualities of the thing which are
essential parts or aspects of its creation. "Condicio" refers
to "accidentia," or additional or superficial characteristics
added after the creation: cp. "universa conditio testabitur
corpora de corporibus processura," De an. 6.9; "ipsa lex con-
dicionali comminatione suspendens," De an. 52.2. This sense
of "conditio" - "creation" occurs only in Christian litera-
ture. See Waszink on De an. 6.9, and E. Evans, Introduction
to de Carne Christi (London 1960). I have adopted "conditio"
here because Achamoth's basic origination was worse than
Sophia's, not merely her temporary misfortune. The misfor-
tunes of Achamoth and Sophia are equivalent (Sophia is the
model for Achamoth); it is their differing status--Sophia be-
ing an aeon, Achamoth being "abortiva"--that distinguishes
Achamoth as "deterior." Hence "conditio." These words are
usually confused in the mss.
        It might be possible to take "pro conditione deter-
ius insurgente" together = "in view of her worsening condi-
tion," and take "also fluctu" as parallel to "maerore," "metu,"
"ignorantia." The total sense would not differ greatly.

However in such case the adjectival participle would usually
be "insurgenti"; furthermore Achamoth's "conditio" is not
really getting worse; she has been left with a "peculium"
which she had not had before.
Page 46, Line 4 -- materiam -- The mss. reading is correct.
For other cases where the antecedent is included in the clause
see below, "terram" (page 55, line 10), Adv. Val. 24; also
"malarum quas amor curas habet," Hor. Ep. 2.37; "quem tu . . .
minitaris ignem," Prud. perist. 5:187; "populo ut placerent
quas fecisset fabulas," Ter. Andria 3. Other examples in
Leumann-Hofmann-Szantyr II.564.
Page 46, Line 8 -- Demiurgi -- This word (" dhmiourgo&j "
= workman, artisan) is used by second century Greek fathers
as a synonym for "god"; Clement of Rome in his Epistle to the
Corinthians makes " dhmiourgo&j " synonymous with " kti/sthj "
referring to God. Likewise "fabricator" and related words are
used by Irenaeus Latinus in the same way. In the original
metaphysical sense (Plato, Timaeus), a demiurge is a being who
makes something from pre-existing matter; he makes a " ko&smo&j "
from " a)taci/a ." Because the word has this sense, it was
avoided completely by the LXX and used only once in the New

Testament (Heb. 11.10). The apologists were not so scrupulous.
In the Valentinian scheme of course the word fits exactly,
since the Demiurge does make the world out of pre-existing
material. See M. R. Braun, Deus Christianorum (Paris, 1962),
Page 46, Line 15 -- Nonacris -- A mountain in Arcadia at the
foot of which the Styx had its source. "Iuxta Nonacrim Styx
epota ilico necat," Pl. Nat. Hist. II.106.321.
Page 46, Line 16 -- Lyncestarum -- "Lyncestis aqua quae voca-
tur acidula vini modo temulentos facit," Pl. Nat. Hist. II
Page 46, Line 17 -- Salmacis -- A pool or fountain in Caria.
For the story of the nymph who lived there, see Ovid Meta.
4.286 ff.
Page 47, Line 5 -- recordans -- Usually with genitive in
later Latin; also twice in Cicero with the same case: Att.
4.19.1, Pis. 6.12. See Leumann-Hofmann-Szantyr II 81.
Page 48, Line 4 -- ibidem -- Found with the meaning "at
once," "immediately," first in Lucretius 6.792, then becoming
more frequent in later Latin: cp. "statim atque ibidem," Adv.

Prax. 14. See Waszink, note on De an. 19.7.
Page 46, Line 7 -- suggestum -- One of T's favorite words.
Its meanings include: (1) procession, as here and "suggestus
et pompa moechiae," De pud. 5.6; (2) ornamentation, "de solo 
suggestu et apparatu honoris retractandum," De idol. 18.1;
(3) delivery, development, "plane socia materia per substan-
tiae suggestum," Adv. Herm. 16.3; (4) influence, effect, "ex
materiae potius suggestu quam ex dei flatu," De an. 1.1. The
last two examples can hardly be distinguished. For extensive
discussion of this word, see A. Engelbrecht, "Lexicalisches
and biblisches aus Tertullian," Wiener Studien, XXVII (1905),
Page 46, Line 9 -- agnitione -- On Christ's first trip out-
side the pleroma he had given Achamoth shape and form in a
semi-physical sense. He had made her capable of acting
(above, Chapter XIV). Now he sends Paracletus Soter on a sec-
ond trip to give Achamoth knowledge of how to act, or of what
to do. This is the formation according to knowledge (" mo&rqwsin
th_n kata_ gnw~sin ," Iren. 1.4.5). Now her actions can
be more effective. Also now after this "morphosis" we humans
can form an idea of Achamoth; we can have " gnw~sij " of her.
Formerly she was an unthinkable essence.
Page 46, Line 13 -- incorporalem -- " e)c aswma&tou pa&qouj

ei\j a)sw&maton thhn_ u3lhn metabalei=n au)ta& ," Iren. 1.4.5.
He does not change the "passio" into matter, or things, yet,
but simply changes it into a disorganized antecedent which
then is developed by Achamoth herself into this world. "In-
corporalem" is Fredouille's necessary change; "materiae cor-
poralem paraturam" is self-contradictory: if the "passio"
becomes corporeal, then it must be matter itself, not a
"paratura" of matter. For a discussion of the Greek, see
Harvey's note on Irenaeus 1.4.5, p. 40.
Page 48, Line 16 -- conditio -- See above (page 146), note
on Adv. Val. 14, page 45, line 18. Here the basic essence,
"paratura," of each kind of matter is founded. Hence
Page 49, Line 5 -- proficit -- Cp. "mali autem homines et
seductores proficient in peius," II Tim. 3:13.
Page 49, Line 10 -- vi laetantis ex laetitia -- There is no
need to insert "et" with Kroymann. Such asyndeton is common
in T: cp. "destinata, distincta condicione," Apol. 48.11;
"habes dicta domini, exempla," De idol. 12. The mss. "vis"
is possible; it would be harsh with "sibi," but other cases
can be cited of "sibi" for "ei," as below, "cur sibi. ..

noluit esse nota (i.e., Achamoth)," Adv. Val. 20, page 53,
line 4. Tie difficulty is the harshness of "vis" as the sub-
ject of "imbiberat." Personifications are common in T, but
I know of no other that is personified so physically.
Page 49, Line 15 -- trium scilicet liberorum -- The senatus
consultum Tertullianum admitted women as legitimate heirs on
the condition she possessed the "ius liberorum," i.e., had
three children, or four if a freed woman. The author of this
law was perhaps our Tertullian. See W. W. Buckland, A Text-
book of Roman Law, 2nd ed. (New York, 1949), 372-4.
Page 50, Line l -- non potuit attingere -- Just as the demi-
urge later is not able to approach the spirit-like, "de in-
valitudine spiritalia accedere," Adv. Val. 21. Thus in this
respect Achamoth is a model for the lower demiurge just as
Sophia was a model for the lower Achamoth. See Sagnard, La
Gnose, passim, for this parallelism.
Page 50, Lines 14-15 -- ad dextram. . . ad laevam -- A simi-
lar division is in Adv. Val. 26: soul-like on the right,
matter on the left, the spirit-like above both. Note also the
same system in the apocryphal Acts of John 13, in which the
cross divides the lower world into right and left, good and

bad, as in this diagram:
                           upper world
                           bad | good
                           lower world
Bythos, Monogenes, and the aeons are in the upper world; we
are in the lower. Related to this is the number symbolism in
Valentinus' Gospel of Truth (Grant, Gnosticism, 154-5):
99, an incomplete number, is on the left hand, while 100, a 
complete number, is on the right. The change from 99 to 100
is a symbol of salvation, of becoming spirit-like. The num-
bers come from the parable of the lost sheep. See F. Burkitt,
"Valentinian Terms," JTS, 1923, 64-7.
        The separation of man's nature into material, soul
like, and spirit-like also occurs in Paul; for example, I Cor.
2:14 ff., " yuxiko_j de_ a!nqrwpoj ou) de&xetai ta_ tou~
pneu&matou (tou~ qeou), mwria& ga_r au&tw|~ e)stin, . . . o( de_
pneumatiko_j a)nakri/nei pa&nta.." Note in this passage the
denigration of the soul-like, otherwise rare in Paul and usu-
ally considered Gnostic. This three-fold division seems to
be somewhat of a commonplace in later Greek thought.

Page 51, Line 1 -- nominum proprietas -- Possibly a refer-
ence to the Stoic theories about the truth of assertion.
"Propositions are said to be true when the thing named by the
subject name has the predicate expressed by the predicate ex-
pression," Sex. Empiricus, Adv. Math. VIII.100, quoted in B.
Mates, Stoic Logic (Berkeley, 1961), 35-36. In this case the
proposition, for example, "hic est pater substantiarum," is
not true, "propius," since the Demiurge is not the founder of
all things. Likewise with "Demiurgus" and "Rex." These
titles would be appropriate if applied to Achamoth.
Page 51, Line 2 -- haec omnia -- I.e. , "nomina, specifically
"Pater," "Demiurgus," "Rex."
Page 51, Line 4 -- commentatam -- I assume to be derived
from "commento," mewing "sketch." Oehler in his note ad loc.
derives this from "comminiscor" as in "commentata vim tor-
menti," De pall. 1.3. However, the metaphor of painting is
carried through this chapter. (Cp. "imagines. . . pictoris,"
below), making "commento" more likely.
Page 51, Line 6 -- daret -- I take "Soter" as "Subject";
"darent" would assume "Valentiniani" as subject. Both are 
possible, but "daret" parallels the following verbs "effing-

eret," "exprimerent sc. archangeli."
Page 52, Line 3 -- diversitate duplici -- The two states
were revealed in Adv. Val. 16, page 48, line 16 f.: "de vitiis
pessima, de conversione passionalis." "duplicis" is wrong
because there were not two substances expelled from Achamoth,
only one with a two-fold "paratura" which could become two
different kinds of things.
Page 52, Line 7 -- Sabbatum -- Presumably the Valentinians
derived this from <hebrew> meaning seven, although the word is
usually derived from <hebrew> meaning "rest day," "sabbath day."
Page 52, Line 8 -- dictum est -- Kroymann's "dictus" is
unnecessary; "dictum" has been attracted by the neuter object.
Latin case usages in naming constructions is confused in gen-
eral; here we have the influence of the indirect discourse
construction. See Leumann-Hofmann-Szantyr II.90-91, 359.
Page 53, Line 4 -- cur sibi ff. -- I have adopted P's reading.
"ista. . . nota" is accusative plural referring to "ea opera."
MX's reading, "se. . . ipsam," refers to Achamoth. The former
interpretation is better because the point of the previous
discussion is that the Demiurge is ignorant of how the world

should be arranged- "operatur Demiurgus ignorans"--not that
he is ignorant of Achamoth's existence, although that is true
also. As above (Adv. Val. 17, page 39, line 10), "sibi" = "ei."
On "se" for "is," see Hoppe, Syntax und Stil. p. 102.
Page 53. Line 7 -- quasi marem -- Transferred here from
after "et matrem" by Kroymann. This reading corresponds in
position and meaning to " kai\ ku&rion arsenikw~j ,"
Iren. 1.5.3. Kroymann's positioning brings out the pun on
genders. (See above on Adv. Val. 11 for gender of "Spiritus
Sanctus.") The mss. reading arose when "marem" was misread
as "matrem" and then put after "et matrem" as a supposed
Page 53, Line 8 -- illi -- I have translated this as a dative
of possession referring to "Spiritus Sanctus." It could also
be (1) subject referring to the Valentinians, (2) in apposition
to "feminae." All are possible, but the dative seems the
strongest expression.
Page 53, Line 10 -- de animalis census invalitudine -- Kroy-
mann's reading. The mss. reading might be explained as "de 
animalibus [understand "being" = " w{n "] censu," the latter

being ablative of cause. "Scilicet" could take the place of a
present participle of "esse" as "quidam" often does, e.g.,
"securitas specie quidem blanda," Cic. Lael. 47; "unum quidem
certum promitto tibi," Plautus Stichus 3.2.26. However, I can
find no parallel to such a usage, and besides the whole phrase 
is strained even for T.
Page 53, Line 13 -- factitatorem -- The mss. read "facti-
torem" here. I have adopted "factitatorem" on the strength of
Adv. Herm. 31, "factitatio," and M's "factitatore" below.
Page 54, Line 2 -- capit -- Common in later Latin and especi-
ally in T in the sense "licet, fieri potest," from the Greek
" e)vde&xetai ." Cp. "haec non capit aestimare," De cult.
1.2.3; "non capit prophetam perire," Luke 13:33 (Vulgate).
See Thesaurus III.333.27, Leumann-Hofmann-Szantyr II.416. The
word usually occurs with a word of saying understood; "dici"
can be understood here.
Page 54, Line 5 -- munditenentem -- " kosmokra&tora ,"
Iren. 1.5.4.

Page 54, Line 15 -- qua nec aerem -- "Qua" in the sense "quia"
with participles and verbs is frequent in T. Cp. "nihil est
timendum post mortem qua nec experiendum post mortem," Test. an.
4.6; "qua adulterium in matrimonio crimen est," De monog. 9.5.
The locution occurs as early as Columella (6 praef.) and is
not rare in later Latin; cp. "in sumptum superet tibi semper
qua non spervisti hunc lapidem," CIL IX.60; "deo qua patri et
misericordi," Cyprian, Epist. 16.2. See Hoppe, Syntax und
Stil, p. 59; Waszink, note on De an. 39.1; Bulhart, p. "III.
Page 55, Line 4 -- argumentabor -- In T this word has a con-
temptuous sense; cp. "argumentari tibi videor, Hermogenes?"
Adv. Herm. 3. The implication is that T is entering into the
heretics' ridiculous game. See Oehler's note on De spec. 4;
Waszink's note on De an. 2.5.
Page 55, Line 4 -- motiunculis -- Cp. Seut. Vesp. 24, where
"motiuncula" means "fever," and Celsus 3.5.28 where "motio"
means "a fit." This continues the image of her "passio" as a
disease; see above note on "passio," Adv. Val. 9.
Page 55, Line 10 -- terram -- Oehler's change to "terra" is

unnecessary; this is another case where the antecedent is in-
cluded in the clause. See above, page 147, note on "materiam,"
Adv. Val. 15.
Page 55, Line 11 -- quasi . .siccaverit -- Kroymann's
change, adopted by Fredouille, is unnecessary. Fredouille
argues that "non. . . siccaverit" is contradictory. His inter-
pretation is as follows: T is saying, "The Valentinians say
that the Demiurge took matter not from this dry land--they say
this just as if it were dry at that time even before the waters
had left it!" By this interpretation T is criticizing the
Valentinians for their wrong chronology, and "quasi. ..fuerit"
is T's statement. Direct criticism is not T's style in this
work; he is more usually sarcastic, as in "ego argumenta-
bor. . ." above, where he adds ridiculous details. The same
stylistic trait is evident in this passage as well. My inter-
pretation is as follows: T is saying, "The Valentinians say
he took matter not from the dry land--they assume it was not
dry yet of course, since the waters were still on it." T adds
a sarcastic reason why the Demiurge did not use dry land; he
is putting words in the Valentinians' mouths. Therefore "non
.. .siccaverit" is not contradictory. "Siccare" in the in-
transitive sense (meaning "dry up") is not unknown: cp. "ubi
siccaverit sc. uvae," Cato Agr. 112.

Page 55, Line 10 -- adhuc -- In the sense "etiamtum"; cp. "in
idolis adhuc vivis," De cor. 7; "Adam adhuc integer vir," De
virg. vel. 8. See Hoppe, Syntax und Stil, pp. 109-10.
Page 55, Lines 13-14 -- audeo aestimare -- Again T adds fur-
ther ridiculous detail, building the Gnostic system into
Page 56, Line 1 -- ita -- Kroymann's change to "itaque" is
unnecessary. "Ita" is correlative with "sic erit" following.
Furthermore, "ita" is often used for "itaque": "ita utrumque
ex alterutro redarguimus," Apol. 1.5. See Leumann-Hofmann-
Szantyr II.513.
Page 56, Line 4 -- materialis . . . Demiurgus -- Possibly the
reading should be "materiali. .. Demiurgo" meaning "to be con-
sidered in the Demiurgic material class." Same expression with
"deputo" in "id peccato deputandum," De paen. 2.3. The argu-
ments against this reading are. (1) the parallelism between
"choicus," "materialis," and "similitudo," and (2) the ease
of the loss of an "s" between. "materialis scilicet." Thus I
have kept Rhenanus' reading.
Page 56, Line 10 -- sicut et ipsa -- T's locution for o(mo-

ou&sion th|~ mhtri/ ," Iren. 1.5.6
Page 57, Line 4 -- Ecclesiae. . . Hominis -- I.e., the two
aeons who, as a pair, are called simply "Ecclesia" (page 34,
line 4). I have put a comma after "Hominis," taking it with
"speculum," not with "censum," as Sagnard, La Gnose, pp. 389-
394, 394, seems to do. By punctuating in this way, I take "censum
proinde eum" as one phrase meaning "this origin corresponding
(to the higher aeons) they derive from Achamoth . . . ." (The
use of adverbs as adjectives is not uncommon: "anima tunc
Socratis," De an. 1.2; "tanta solacia extrinsecus principi- 
bus " Apol. 5.5. See above note on "proinde," Adv. Val. 6
(page 131). Without punctuating this way, I cannot see what
is to be done with "Hominis." Sagnard assumes, rightly, that
this refers to the aeon, but the aeon for which the "seed" is
named is Ecclesia, not Homo, unless it is assumed that Eccle-
sia plus Homo are also called Ecclesia.
Page 57, Line 6 -- a)rxh~j -- Irenaeus says, " e)x&ein th_n
me_n yuxh_n a@potou~ Dhmiou&rou, to_ de_ sw~ma a)po_ tou~ xoo_j, kai\ to_
sarkiko_n a)po_ u3lhj " (1.5.6). T has rearranged Irenaeus, putting
Achamoth first and substituting "choicum substantia a)rxh~j "
for " sw~ma a)po_ tou ." It is certain that the mss.
reading must have been " a)rxh~j "; the question is, what is
this "substantia a)rxh~j "? The only possibility is that this

is the "incorporealis paratura" mentioned in Adv. Val. 16
(page 46, line 13), which Paracletus Soter separated from 
Achamoth. This is T's addition; Irenaeus refers to this
"paratura" as " u3lh: e)z a)sw&matou pa&qouj ei)j a)sw&-
maton th_n u#lhn  ," (1.4.5).
Page 57, Line 7 -- Geryon -- The Spanish King with three
bodies whose cattle were stolen by Heracles. See Hesiod,
Theog. 287 ff.
Page 57, Line 12 -- in animalis comparationem -- " tw~| yu-
xikw~| morfwqh~| ," Iren. 1.6.1.
Page 58, Line 9 -- subiaceret -- The subject is "Soter."
"Subiacent" (with its subject being "Valentiniani") would
have a transitive sense for which I can find no parallels.
Page 58, Line 13 -- excipiant -- A judicial term meaning
"to exclude or except from a law": "lege excipiuntur tabulae
publicanorum," Cic. Verr. 2.2.187; "quae lex de sabbati fer-
iis excipit," Adv. Marc. IV.12. See Thesaurus s.v.
Page 59, Line 2 -- suum Christum -- Again the lower world

is just a copy of the upper world; the aeons have their
Christ, the Demiurge has his.
Page 59, Line 18 -- insubditivum -- Hapax leg. from
Page 60, Line 3 -- ita -- In the sense of "igitur." See
note above on "ita," Chapter XXIV (page 56, line 1).
Page 60, Line 4 -- omnia in imagine surgunt -- "Omnia" be-
ing all the components of the Demiurge's Christ; all these
rise up as a copy of what happens in the higher world. The
Valentinians also are simply copies, bad ones, of what Chris-
tians should be. Rhenanus' reading, "imagines urgunt," as-
sumes "ipsi" as subject, yet "plane et" would be unparalleled
for introducing a single subject; the words fit well intro-
ducing a sarcastic addition: cp. "plane Fato stat Iuppiter
ipse," Apol. 34; "est plane quasi saevitia medicinae," Scorp.
5. "Omnia" recapitulates the contents of this chanter, while
"ipsa" is T's addition.
Page 60, Line 7 -- contionabitur -- Future tense as in
"mentietur apostolus," Adv. Val. 5. Perhaps this usage arose
from the future as potential: cp. "hoc videbitur fortasse

cuipiam durius," Cic. Off. 1.23; other examples in Leumann-
Hofmann-Szantyr II.311. In T the sense of this use of the
future often seems to be "is supposed to. . . ," "they say
he . . . ." Examples are: "haec erit materia," Adv. Val. 16;
"phantasm erit totum quod speramus a christo," De carne 5;
"non omne quod dei erit deus habebitur," Adv. Marc. II.9. In
other places the future is used for variety: cp. "vani erunt
homines, nisi certi sint," Apol. 11. Often no special force 
of the future can be felt: cp. "quod cumque adversus veri-
tatem sapit, hoc erit haeresis;" De virg. vel. 1.3.
Page 60, Line 14 -- nomine -- See above note on "nomine,"
Chapter VII.
Page 60, Line 16 -- iusserunt -- I assume "Valentiniani" as
subject, as in "inserant," "stipant," Adv. Val. 27, and "divi-
dunt" following. I cannot see what the subject of "iusserat"
would be, especially with the plural "professi" following.
Rhenanus' "disserant," adopted by all editors, is a need- 
lessly great change. "Iubere" in the sense, "to decree a
law," is common: cp. "quae populus iuberet," Cic. Flac. 7.15;
de omnibus his. . . populum iussissi," Livy 38.45. The Valen-
tinians speak with authority (cp. "pontificali," Adv. Val. 37).

Page 51, Line 6 -- sententiae -- Engelbrecht's "substantia"
is attractive but unnecessary. The types of souls are being
discussed under two headings: "natura" (" kata_ ge&noj ," 
Iren. 1.7.5), namely "choica," "spiritalis," "animalis"; and
"sententia," the judgment of each of the natures, "saluti
degeneratum," etc. In this context "natura" and "substantia"
would be mere synonyms.
Page 61, Line 11 -- de obvenientia ff. --Souls at birth are
of two kinds, "animalis" Or "Choicus." The "Spiritalis" na-
ture is given at random to some of those who are "animalis."
Hence the "spiritalis" nature is not on the same level as the
other two. This three-fold division seems to have been Ptolo-
maeus' addition to Valentinus' theory; the Gospel of Truth
mentions nothing about three kinds of men, but does imply two
kinds: "He appeared informing them of the Father .. ..Many
received the light and turned toward him. But material men
were alien to him and did not discern his appearance nor
recognize him." In other words, some are "spiritalis" at
birth and able to recognize the truth; others are "choicus"
and reject it. Ptolomaeus added a third category, perhaps to
provide an honorable place for non-Valentinian Christians,
who were the "animalis." See also note on "ad dextram . . . ,"
Chapter XVIII.

Page 61, Line 12 -- quos -- Fredouille reads "quod" refer-
ring to "spiritale." Engelbrecht's "quam" must refer to
"spiritalem statum" which is masculine; this is unlikely un-
less we have here an unusual attraction by "naturam." "Quos"
can be kept: it refers to multiple instances of the giving
of the "spiritalis status." They are thought of as acces-
sories of the "animalis natura" which are being rained down
onto good souls. See Oehler's note ad loc.
Page 61, Line 13 -- censui -- Very rare, except in T, with
the sense, "class, group." T derived this sense from expres-
sions in which "census" has the meaning "origo," e.g., "in
Abrahae censum," Adv. Marc. IV.34; "Saturni census," Ad nat.
II.12.26. Other examples of the present use are "de Graeciae
censu," De an. 31.5; "deorum censum," Ad nat. II.1.10. See
Waszink's note on De an. 8.1.
Page 61, Line 17 -- eruditu -- Hapax leg. I cannot con-
strue the mss. "eruditus" (perfect participle of "erudiri")
with "granum." The noun or supine "eruditus" seems to occur
nowhere else. Another possibility is "eruditi," but the word
order "eruditi huius" is against it.
Page 62, Line 3 -- ergo -- P's reading must be correct. The
statement is a consequence, not an explanation, of why he
considered them of great worth, as "enim" would imply.

Page 62, Line 4 -- allegere -- " e!tassen ," Iren. 1.7.3.
"Allegere" is used frequently of enrollment into the senate 
and into other bodies: cp. "in senatum allegere," Suet. Cl.
24; "in clerum allegere," Jerome Adv. Jov. l. "Allegare" is
of similar meaning in the sense, "send someone on some busi-
ness": cp. "si adlegassem aliquem ad hoc negotium," Plautus
Epi. 3.3.46. In our passage, the Demiurge is picking out
souls, not sending them out, hence the former is slightly
preferable. See Thesaurus s. v. 
Page 62, Line 13 -- imperfectae scientiae. . norimus -- I
adopt M. R. Braun's reading, following " mh_ th_n telei/an
gnw~sin e!xontej " (Iren. 1.6.2), equalling "imperfectae
scientiae sums." Note what is said of Achamoth in Chapter
XI V, "solius substantiae, non etiam scientiae forma." The
reading "essentia" (a word used nowhere else by T) would be
an easy scribal correction for the haplography "sentiae."
The insertion of "non" seems certain; the text makes no sense
otherwise. T is saying, "Orthodox Christians do not know
this Valentinian system (represented by the aeon Theletus)
and therefore, as they say, we are a lower order of beings."
T then adds his own comment as usual, turning the argument
back on them. He says their own (spiritual) mother, Achamoth,

was also defective: cp. "abortiva genitura," Adv. Val. 14;
M. R. Braun, Deus Christianorum (Paris, 1962), 581.
Page 62, Line 14 -- deputatur -- Rhenanus' change is unneces-
sary. The subject of the sentence is "inscriptura huius
seminis," which is stamped on defectives. Typically T writes
"nobis. . . inscriptura seminis" instead of "nobis. . . inscrip-
tum est semen." On T's love of nominal expressions instead
of verbal, note Hoppe's comment, "...seine Vorliebe für die
substantivische Ausdrucksweise an Stelle der im klass. Latein
bevorzugten verbalen." (Syntax und Stil, p. 140.)
Page 63, Line 14 -- massam seminis sui -- The metaphor is
of olive oil. "Horrea" were used for liquids: cp. "deripere
horreo amphoram," Hor. Car. 3.28.7.
Page 63, Line 15 -- vel -- This word must be retained.
There are two metaphors here, oil and grain; "vel" marks the
change from one to the other. To make one metaphor out of
both, as most editors have done (Engelbrecht's "messerit,"
Oehler's "perfecerit") involves unnecessary change of the text.
Page 64, Line 1 -- in consparsione salutari -- Cp. "nescitis
quia modicum fermentum totam massam corrumpit? expurgate

vetus fermentum ut sitis nova conspersio sicut estis azymi,"
I Cor. 5. 6-7 (Vulgate).
Page 64, Line 4 -- compacticius -- Note that the aeons are
said to "compingunt Iesum," Adv. Val. 12 (page 42, line 17).
Page 65, Line 7 -- Demiurgo suo reddent -- The Demiurge made
their souls from his "soul-like" material, but the Valentin- 
ians have a remainder, the "spirit-like," which no one else
Page 66, Line 4 -- novissimum -- I have printed Latinus'
conjecture as being most likely. "Onesimum," despite editors'
efforts to find a likely name (see note ad loc. in Migne),
makes no sense. Oehler's suggestion (note ad loc.) that some
number lurks here is most attractive; he supposes "unum et
tricesimum" as most likely. The difficulty is "aliquem,"
which does not occur this way with a numeral. See Leumann-
Hofmann-Szantyr II. 194.
Page 66, Line 14 -- quem nec tunc -- T often recurs to this
theme, that Christians will be like angels: cp. "sed qua non
nupturi. ..sed qua transituri in statum angelicum per indu-
mentum illud incorruptibilitatis," De res. 36.5; "angelorum

candidati," De orat. 3.3. After the resurrection there will
be no marriages, "postquam non nubent," De res. 36.4. Oehler's
emendation, "nec," fits T's argument: all these marryings
will not happen to him because he will be like the angels.
"Et" would mean, "No one will marry me off, since I will still
be a man."
Page 67, Line 1 -- hunc malui -- T claims too much for him-
self. Actually this chapter and the one following are taken
from Irenaeus in order.
Page 67, Line 7 -- secundum coniugium -- Kroymann's reading
is correct: "secundum" is the preposition equivalent to
" kata_ suzugi/an ." "Secundum" was interpreted as the
adjective and then changed to the logical "primum."
Page 67, Line 10 -- viritatis -- A hazardous but irresis-
tible change suggested by Engelbrecht, "Lexicalisches and
Biblisches aus Tertullian," Wiener Studien, XXVII (1905),65-6.
The hazard is that "viritas" occurs nowhere else, but it can
be paralleled by "muliertas," De virg. vel. 12.2 and "pueri-
tas," Ad nat. II.9.2.

Page 67, Line 13 -- dominum. . . deus -- They may have done
this; cp. the difference between the personal god Brahma (m.)
and the impersonal force Brahman (n.) in the Upanishads.
Page 67, Line 16 -- Fenestella -- The noted historian and
antiquarian of the early Empire (died circa 25 A.D.). His
works are not extant, though he was cited frequently by Pliny
the Elder. Nothing else is known of Luna or its inhabitants.
See Pauly RE VI.2, Col. 2177-9.
Page 68, Line 5 -- primo et quinto loco ff. -- These are the
emanations and reflections of higher beings on a lower plane,
just as in the sequence Sophia-Achamoth, or Nus-Demiurge. Here
the first four aeons have counterparts in the second four.
Page 68, Line 12 -- For a parallel to this chapter, compare
"The Sacred Book of John" (in W. Till, Die Gnostische Schrif-
ten des koptischen Papyrus Berolinensis 8502, Berlin, 1955;
translated in Grant, Gnosticism, p. 73):

All these [i.e., aeons] however came into exis-
tence in Silence and a Thought. The Invisible
Spirit willed to make something; its Will became
corporeal; Will revealed itself and stood with
Mind and the Light while it praised it. Logos
followed Will, for through the Logos, Christ crea-
ted all things.
Page 68, Line 13 -- Gradus Gemonios -- Steps which led
from the Aventine to the Tiber, down which corpses of male-
factors were thrown.
Page 69, Line 9 -- circulatoria -- Oehler's emendation is
correct: cp. "circulatoria iactatio," Quint. 2.4.15; "cir-
culatoria secta," De idol. 9.6. Kroymann's "cicuri anima"
does not apply to the Valentinians, since T calls them bold,
not mild.
Page 69, Line 15 -- non proferentes -- " proh&kanto mh_
proeme&nai " (Iren. 1.11.3). In other words, Monotes and
Henotes produced another, Monad, but this production did not
separate itself from them, but remained part of their unity.
We can see here the beginnings of trinitarian speculation.
Irenaeus Latinus is particularly clumsy here; he has "emiser-
unt, cum nihil emiserint."
Page 70, Line 1 -- Sermo -- Apparently this particular

system had further developments that account for the presence
of Logos: cp. " h3n a)rxh_n o( logoj mena&da kalei= ,"
Iren. 1.11.3. His presence is mysterious since we do not know
what these developments were.
Page 70, Line 10 -- venientibus -- The mss. reading "veni-
ant" is barely possible and is adopted by Fredouille; he com-
pares "me iussit ferre . . . atque ut mecum mitteres Phoenicum,"
Pl. Pseud. 1150. If "veniant" were adopted here, the expres-
sion would be even more harsh than in the Plautine example,
since no "ut" introduces "veniant." The reason Plautus uses
this form is because the person of the verb in the subordin-
ate clause changes. No such consideration applies here. Con-
sequently I have adopted "venientibus."
Page 71, Line 5 -- quam quia -- The mss. "quamquam" makes
no sense. No adversative tone is in the subordinate clause.
Kroymann's change to "quam quia" is paleographically most
likely, although it does require the addition of "non."
Page 71, Line 9 -- insolescentes -- Kroymann's change to

"inolescentes" is unnecessary; cp. the similar use of the
word in "uterus insolescens," Jerome In Helv. 18; "vox
insolescere," Ad nat. II.12.


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Ad mart.            -- Ad martyras
Ad nat.             -- Ad nationes
Ad Scap.            -- Ad Scapulam
Ad ux.              -- Ad uxorem
Adv. Herm.          -- Adversus Hermogenem
Adv. Iud.           -- Adversus Iudaeos
Adv. Marc.          -- Adversus Marcionem
Adv. omnes haer.    -- Adversus omnes haereses
Adv. Prax.          -- Adversus Praxean
Adv. Val.           -- Adversus Valentinianos
Apol.               -- Apologeticum
De carne            -- De carne Christi
De cor.             -- De corona
De cult.            -- De cultu feminarum
De fuga             -- De fuga in persecutione
De idol.            -- De idololatria
De iei.             -- De ieiunia
De mono.            -- De monogamia

De orat.            -- De oratione
De paen.            -- De paenitentia
De pall.            -- De pallio
De pat.             -- De patientia
De praes.           -- De praescriptione haereticorum
De res.             -- De resurrectione carnis
Scorp.              -- Scorpiace
De spec.            -- De spectaculis
Test. an.           -- De testimonio animae
De virg. vel.       -- De virginibus velandis

Bulhart  -- V. Bulhart, Tertulliani Opera (CSEL 76),
                       Vienna, 1957.
Fredouille  -- J.-C. Fredouille, "Valentiniana," VC
                       19 (1965), 45-79
Hoppe, Syntax und Stil -- H. Hoppe, Syntax und Stil
                       des Tertullians, Leipzig, 1903.
Hoppe, Beiträge  -- H. Hoppe, Beiträge zur Spache
                       und Kritik Tertullians, Lund,
Lofstedt -- Zur Sprache -- E. Lofstedt, Zur
                       Sprache Tertullians, Lund, 1932.
Waszink -- J. H. Waszink, Q. S. Fl. Tertulliani de
                       anima, Amsterdam, 1947.
CIL  -- Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum

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