Zachariah of Mitylene, Syriac Chronicle (1899). Book 4.
THIS fourth Book also, inasmuch as it is from 1 the History of Zachariah the Rhetorican, relates (in its twelve chapters that are written down distinctly below) and makes known the events occurring after the death of Marcian, and Morian, and Anthemius, and Severus, and Olybrius, who reigned in all twelve years, as the Chronicle testifies—these events (I say) it makes known which took place in Alexandria, and in Ephesus, in the days of Leo, and Leo, during a period of twenty years. It tells about the consecration of Timothy the Great, surnamed the "Weasel." And how Proterius, who was appointed as the successor of Dioscorus by the Synod of Chalcedon, was killed; and how, after his death, his clergy presented a libel to Timothy, and sought to come to the Church; but the zealous priests, on the side of Timothy, and the people would not allow them. Whereupon they went to Rome, and informed Leo about the matter; who wrote a letter to Leo the king censuring the consecration of Timothy.
But this Book, further, tells about the letter of Timothy to Leo censuring the additions which had been made in the Synod, and the Tome.
And, moreover, it tells about John, who was the bishop in Ephesus after the resignation of Bassianus; and about the encyclical letter of Leo the king, which he wrote to the bishops, with the object of eliciting from them their written opinions respecting the definitions that were made in the Synod. And they all, with the exception of Amphilochius of Side, wrote in praise of these definitions. |62
This Book, further, tells how Timothy was banished to Gangra, and from Gangra to Cherson ; and that his successor was one of the Proterian party, another Timothy surnamed Salophaciolus.
And it, moreover, tells about Isaiah the bishop, and Theophilus the presbyter, who showed themselves to be Eutychians; and about the letter which Timothy wrote respecting them, and by which he exposed them.
The first chapter tells about the consecration of Timothy the Great, surnamed the "Weasel"; and the events which then occurred.
The second chapter shows how Proterius was killed, and dragged away; and his body was burned with fire.
The third chapter explains how after Timothy appeared as the sole bishop, the other clergy also, who were adherents of Proterius, presented a libel by which they showed themselves desirous of coming to the Church; but the zealous priests, on the side of Timothy, would not allow them.
The fourth chapter tells how these men, because they were not received by Timothy, got ready and went up to Rome and gave information to the chief priest Leo (respecting the matter).
The fifth chapter tells about Timothy; and also what happened in Ephesus to John the successor of Bassianus.
The sixth chapter, moreover, explains about the petition of Timothy which he wrote to the king, which contained a censure upon Leo and his letter.
The seventh chapter tells about the replies to the Encyclical respecting the Synod, which were sent to Leo the king by the bishops; and how Amphilochius did not agree with the others in what he wrote.
The eighth chapter tells about the letter of Anatolius to the king, proving him to have influenced the bishops, as to the purport of their replies respecting the Synod. |63
The ninth chapter tells about the banishment of Timothy, and the events which happened at his departure from Alexandria.
The tenth chapter explains about the other Timothy, who was the bishop of the Proterian party, and was called Salophaciolus.
The eleventh chapter tells about the removal of Timothy from Gangra to Cherson.
The twelfth chapter tells about Isaiah and Theophilus, the Eutychians; and about the letter which Timothy wrote respecting them, and by which he exposed them.
But the time occupied by this Book is two or three years of Leo the First, and seventeen years of Leo the Second, less by two months, as the Chronicle informs us. For Timothy the Great was about two years, more or less, bishop in Alexandria; and then he was banished to Gangra, and after the lapse of eighteen years he returned to his see; and he very soon died.
This fourth Book is a narrative of the consecration of Timothy, and of the events which occurred in the days of King Leo the First, and Leo the Second. |64
THE FIRST CHAPTER OF THE FOURTH BOOK, TELLING ABOUT THE CONSECRATION OF TIMOTHY THE GREAT, SURNAMED AELURUS, AND THE EVENTS WHICH HAPPENED THEN
The Alexandrian Church being in the condition that we have described above, suddenly the report of the death of Marcian reached them, and they all took courage, and consulted with the whole order of the monks as to whom they should make the bishop of the believing party. For2 at that time Dionysius the general was not there, but was on a visit to Egypt.3 And they agreed upon Timothy, a man expert in business and of ascetic life ; who had been brought from the wilderness, by force, to Cyril, and ordained as presbyter by him. Moreover, he was of the same faith as Dioscorus ; and he was well versed in all the truth of the faith of the doctors of the Church. This man the people of Alexandria along with the monks seized, and brought to the great Church which is called Caesarian. And they sought for three bishops, according to the canonical statute, to consecrate him. And since two Egyptian bishops were present, it was necessary that some other bishop should be found. And on making diligent inquiry, some of the people heard of Peter the Iberian, who had left Palestine and was sojourning there in Alexandria. And they ran quickly and laid hold of the man ; and carried him on their shoulders, not letting him touch the ground. And as they were bringing him along, a voice was heard in the minds of the clergy, and of the monks, and of the believing citizens, like that voice which Philip heard respecting the eunuch of Candace the queen, saying, "Consecrate him by force, even though he be unwilling, and set him on the throne |65 of Mark." And he was weak in body through much self-mortification; so that, on account of his emaciation, the Proterian party used jestingly to style him the "Weasel." And when Dionysius the general heard of the matter, he became uneasy, lest he might receive blame for there being two bishops in the city, when the king heard it. And accordingly he returned, and taking the whole Roman force with him, he made Timothy prisoner. And many were killed. And Dionysius gave orders that they should carry him off to a place called Cabarsarin.4 And upon his departure the conflict between the citizens and the Romans became severe. And there was a great tumult, and slaughters were matters of daily occurrence; more especially as he (Dionysius) kept inciting and urging on the Romans called Cartadon, who were passionate men and Arians. And so the custodian of the Church funds expended them upon the Romans who were contending with the people. But it happened that numbers of them and of their wives fell and perished in the conflict. And they were divided into parties, and fought one against another. And when confusion like this had prevailed in the city for many days, Dionysius was at his wits' end, so he brought a certain monk Longinus, celebrated for chastity and virtue, and he intrusted Timothy to him ; that he might restore the bishop to the city and to his church, upon the condition that the fighting should cease, and that there should be no more slaughter.
And when Timothy had returned to the great church from which he had been forcibly removed, and Proterius had taken for himself the church which is called Quirinian, and Easter |66 time came round, children without number were brought to Timothy to be baptized; so that because of their multitude those who were writing and reading out their names became weary; but only five were brought to Proterius. And the people were so devotedly attached to Timothy that they drove Proterius out of the church of Quirinus ; and slaughter ensued.
THE SECOND CHAPTER SHOWS HOW PROTERIUS WAS SLAIN, AND DRAGGED THROUGH THE CITY ; AND HOW HIS BODY WAS, AT LAST, BURNED WITH FIRE
And 5 when Proterius continued to threaten the Romans, and to display his rage against them ; because they took his gold, but did not fill their hands with the blood of his enemies : then, indeed, a certain Roman was stirred to anger in his heart, and was boiling over with rage ; and he invited Proterius to look round and he would show him the corpses of the slain as they lay. And suddenly and secretly, he drew his sword and stabbed Proterius in the ribs along with his Roman comrades, and they despatched him, and dragged him to the Tetrapylum, calling out respecting him as they went along, "This is Proterius." And others suspected that it was some crafty plot. But the Romans left the body, and went away. Then the people, perceiving this, became also greatly excited, and they dragged off the corpse, and burnt it with fire in the Hippodrome. Thus the end of death overtook Proterius, who had done evil to the Alexandrians, iust as George the Arian, and he suffered at their hands in like manner, and so was it done to him. |67
THE THIRD CHAPTER TELLS HOW, AFTER TIMOTHY APPEARED AS THE SOLE BISHOP, THE OTHER CLERGY ALSO EXPRESSED, BY MEANS OF A LIBEL, THEIR DESIRE TO REPENT AND BE UNITED WITH HIM ; BUT THE PEOPLE AND THE ZEALOUS PRIESTS OF HIS PARTY WOULD NOT ALLOW THEM
But Timothy, when he appeared before them as the only chief priest of Alexandria, showed that he was really what a priest should be. For the silver and the gold that were given to the Romans in the days of Proterius, he expended upon the poor, and the widows, and the entertaining of strangers, and upon the needy in the city. So that, in a short time, the rich men, perceiving his honourable conduct, lovingly and devotedly supplied him with funds, both gold and silver. But the presbyters and all the clergy belonging to the Proterian party, since they knew all his virtues and his angelic mode of life, and the devotion of the citizens to him, joined themselves together and made libels in which they entreated him that they might be received. They also promised that they would go to Rome to Leo, and admonish him concerning the novelties which he had written in the Tome. Among these persons there were some who were ready and eloquent, and of great wealth and dignity, and of high birth also, who had been called to the clerical order by Cyril; and who were honoured in the eyes of the citizens of Rome; and they presented the petition on their behalf to Timothy. And Eustace of Berytus wrote, also recommending their reception.
But the jealousy and hatred of the citizens against these persons were great, on account of the events which had occurred in the days of Proterius, and the various sufferings which they had endured. So they would not consent to their reception, but they prepared the others to cry out, "Not one |68 of them shall set his foot here, neither shall the transgressors be received."
THE FOURTH CHAPTER TELLS HOW THESE MEN GOT READY AND WENT UP TO ROME, AND GAVE INFORMATION RESPECTING THE TREATMENT WHICH THEY HAD SUFFERED
This was the reason why matters were disturbed and thrown into confusion. For when these men were ignominiously refused, they betook themselves to Rome, and there they told about the contempt of the canons, and about the dreadful death of Proterius; and they said that he died for the sake of the Synod and for the honour of Leo; and that they themselves, also, had endured many indignities; and further, that Timothy had come forward in a lawless manner and taken the priesthood. So they rendered the latter odious, and made the whole business appear disgraceful in the eyes of Leo; and they stirred him up against Timothy.
THE FIFTH CHAPTER TELLS THE FOLLOWING MATTERS RESPECTING TIMOTHY; AND ALSO WHAT HAPPENED IN EPHESUS TO JOHN THE SUCCESSOR OF BASSIANUS
But how it came about that Timothy was given up, I shall now relate. Marcian the king having died, and Anthemius, and Severus, and Olybrius having reigned for only short lives, in Italy and the regions beyond, Leo the First received the kingdom in the territory of Europe in conjunction with them and after them. And he was both a believer and vigorous, but simple in the faith. |69
And when Leo the king learned the evils which occurred in Egypt, and in Alexandria, and in Palestine, and in every place; and that many had been disturbed on account of the Synod. And also that in Ephesus there had been much slaughter, upon the entrance of John, after Bassianus had resigned and fled because he would not subscribe the transactions of Chalcedon. But this John, being inflamed with desire for pre-eminence, betrayed the rights and honours of the see; so that in Ephesus they call him "the traitor" unto this day; and they blotted his name out of the book of life. He accordingly, when he received a letter from Timothy of Alexandria, was willing to convene a Synod. But Anatolius, the bishop of the royal city, prevented him; not, indeed, that he was able to find any fault with the written statement of Timothy, but he was very uneasy lest, if a Synod were assembled, it might put an end to all the transactions of Chalcedon. And his anxiety was not for the faith, but rather for the privileges and honours which had been unjustly granted to the see of the royal city.
Accordingly, Anatolius persuaded the king not to assemble a Synod, but by means of written letters, called Encyclicals, to inquire what the mind of the bishops was respecting the Synod of Chalcedon and the consecration of Timothy.
And6 the king began to write to the bishops about Timothy and the Synod of Chalcedon, in the encyclical letter, to the following effect:—
"Do ye, without fear of man or partiality, and unbiassed by influence or by favour, setting the fear of God alone before your eyes, and considering that to Him alone ye must make your defence and give your account, tell me briefly the common opinion held by you the priests in our dominion, what ye think right, after having carefully investigated the transactions of Chalcedon, and concerning the consecration of Timothy of Alexandria." |70
And 7 when a letter such as this from the king was given to Leo of Rome, he wrote two letters to Leo the king; one concerning Timothy, and the other on behalf of the Proterian party, in which he also asserted of the clergy of Constantinople that they were of the same mind as Timothy; and he called Anatolius indolent; and he defended the Tome which he himself wrote respecting Eutyches, and which was accepted in the Council of Chalcedon. However, in a similar strain he wrote distinctly concerning the taking of the Manhood by Christ in this letter also. And Leo the king sent it on to Timothy of Alexandria. And, upon the receipt of it, the latter wrote a petition to the king as follows.
THE SIXTH CHAPTER, DECLARING, BY HIS PETITION, THE FAITH OF TIMOTHY AND THE CHARGES THAT HE MADE AGAINST THE LETTER OF LEO
"O kind and indulgent king! Since among wise men there is nothing more honourable than the soul, and also we have learned to despise the things of the flesh, and not to lose the soul; therefore, as far as in me lies and with all my might, I am careful to keep my soul, lest before the time of judgment I may be condemned as a lover of the flesh, and prepare for myself the fire of Hell. And this I think, that all who are wise concerning that which is good, desire that nothing hateful to their brethren should ever occur. And accordingly, in writing this petition I assure your Serenity that from my youth I have learned the Holy Scriptures, and I have studied the divine mysteries contained in them. And even until now, I have ever been careful to hold the true faith as it was delivered to us by the apostles, and by my |71 fathers the doctors. And, being united to them by the grace of God our Saviour, I have reached my present age. And I confess the one faith which our Redeemer and Creator Jesus Christ delivered when He became incarnate, and sent out the blessed apostles, saying, 'Go, teach all nations; baptizing them in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit.' 8 For 9 the Trinity is perfect, equal of Nature, in glory and blessedness; and there is not in It anything less or more. For thus also the three hundred and eighteen blessed fathers taught concerning the true Incarnation of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, that He became man, according to His dispensation, which He Himself knows. And with them I agree and believe, as do all others who prosper in the true faith. For in it there is nothing difficult, neither does the definition of the faith which the fathers proclaimed require addition. And all (whoever they be) holding other opinions and corrupted by heresy, are rejected by me. And I also myself flee from them. For this is a disease which destroys the soul, namely, the doctrine of Apollinaris, and the blasphemies of Nestorius, both those who hold erroneous views about the Incarnation of Jesus Christ, Who became flesh from us; and introduce into Him the cleavage in two, and divide asunder even the dispensation of the only-begotten Son of God: and those, on the other hand, who say with respect to His Body that it was taken from Heaven, or that God the Word was changed, or that He suffered in His own Nature; and who do not confess that to a human body what pertains to the soul derived from us was united.
"And I say to any who have fallen into one or other of these heresies, 'Ye are in grievous error, and ye know not the Scriptures.'10 And with such I do not hold communion, nor do I love them as believers. But I am joined, and united, and truly agreeing with the faith which was defined at Nicea; and it is my care to live in accordance with it. |72
"But when Diomedes, the distinguished Silentiarius, came to me and gave me the letter of the bishop of Rome, and I studied it, and I was not pleased with its contents; then lest the Church, O Christ-loving man, should be disturbed, I neither, as yet, have publicly read nor censured it.
"But I believe that God has put it into the mind of your Serenity to set right the statements in this letter, which are a cause of stumbling to the believers; for these statements are in accord, and agreement, and conjunction with the doctrine of Nestorius; who was condemned for cleaving asunder and dividing the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ, in respect of natures, and persons, and properties, and names, and operations; who also interpreted the words of Scripture to mean two (natures), which are not contained in the Confession of Faith of the three hundred and eighteen. For they declared that the only-begotten Son of God, Who is of the same Nature with the Father, came down, and became incarnate, and was made man; and suffered, and rose again, and ascended to Heaven; and shall come to judge the quick and the dead. And natures, and persons, and properties were not mentioned by them, nor did they divide them. But they confessed the divine and the human properties to be of One by the dispensation.
"Accordingly, I do not agree with the transactions of Chalcedon, because I find in them divisions and cleavage of the dispensation.
"And now, O victorious king, receive me, for I am speaking this confidently on behalf of the truth; that your Highness may prosper as on earth, so also in Heaven. And accept this my petition with goodwill, for in this letter from the West there runs confusion likely to cause stumbling; for it cleaves asunder the dispensation. And I pray that this letter may be annulled, so that God Christ may be purely confessed by all tongues that He truly suffered in the flesh; while He remained without suffering in His Godhead, which He has with the Father and the Spirit.
"And I entreat and beseech your honoured Majesty that |73 orders be sent to all men to hold the Confession of the faith, as defined by our three hundred and eighteen fathers, which, in a few words, declares the truth to all the Churches, and puts an end to every heresy and all false doctrine and causes of stumbling; and which itself stands in no need of correction. But the matters in this letter which appear to me to require correction" (which are not repeated) "are these—" and because they are given at length with quotations refuting them, we do not repeat them here, lest the reader should be wearied. For believers may find, in all places, the censures upon them that have been made by wise men. In the first place, by Dioscorus; and after him, by this Timothy; and after him by Peter; and by Akhs'noyo of Hierapolis; and by the learned Severus, the chief priest of Antioch, in his work Against the Grammarian;11 and by Cosmas; and by Simeon of L'gino; and by the letter of the Alexandrines.
THE SEVENTH CHAPTER TELLS WHAT THE OTHER BISHOPS WROTE TO LEO; AND HOW THEY ALL (WITH THE EXCEPTION OF AMPLILOCHIUS OF SIDE) MADE KNOWN THEIR VIEWS IN CONFORMITY WITH THE DOCTRINE OF THE SYNOD, AND AGREED TO IT
But Timothy wrote confidently, as above, concerning the letter of Leo and the Synod of Chalcedon. The other bishops, however, the Metropolitans of every place, having received the encyclical letter of the king, testified to what was done by them in Chalcedon, to which also they agreed.12 And they censured the consecration of Timothy, whom Leo, |74 the bishop of Rome, even named "the Antichrist." 13 They say, indeed, that the other bishops also were influenced to write thus by the instigation of Anatolius, and his letters to them.
But14 Amphilochius of Side alone showed truth and uprightness without fear. And he and the bishops of his province wrote confidently, censuring and reviling the transactions of the Synod, and the doctrine of the Tome, telling of the violence and partiality there displayed, and confirming their statements by proofs and copious testimony from the Holy Scriptures and the Fathers. He, moreover, besought the king that the transactions of Chalcedon should be cancelled, since they were a cause of stumbling to the believers, as well as of confusion. Nevertheless, he censured the consecration of Timothy, and said that it had been done in an uncanonical manner. This man, indeed, who testified thus confidently and truly to the king respecting the Synod, fell into danger from the Nestorian party, in consequence of the malignity and treachery which they exhibited towards him; for he was the only one of all the bishops who had the courage to revile the Synod with its transactions, and also the Tome. But Aspar, who was general at that time, although he was an Arian, pleaded and begged for him that such a truthful priest should not be exposed to danger. And thus, indeed, Amphilochius was delivered from danger.
But15 in his endeavour to correct the evils which were done in the days of Marcian, the king was hindered by the bishops. And by their means also Timothy was condemned to banishment in Gangra. Now that Anatolius of Constantinople was the one to instigate the bishops to make these statements to the king in the Encyclicals, you will learn from his letter to the king which I have written below. |75
THE EIGHTH CHAPTER, INDEED, TELLS ABOUT . THE LETTER OF ANATOLIUS TO THE KING ABOUT THE SYNOD, SAYING THAT HE HAD INFLUENCED THE BISHOPS BY WRITING 16
"Anatolius, bishop of Constantinople, to the believing and Christ-loving king, victorious Augustus, Leo the emperor. It is a subject of prayer with me, Christ-loving and believing king," etc. And a little further on he says: "Those audacious acts which have been committed In Alexandria, do not suffer me to remain silent. But, as becomes one holding the priesthood of this your royal city, being attached to the peaceable will of your Majesty, which desires that the canons of the Fathers should not be despised, but that the laws should be maintained, I have testified thus to the pious chief priest Leo and the chaste Metropolitans of your dominion. And I weep for the canons which have been despised by the wicked deeds of Timothy; since the records sent to your Majesty respecting him declare that he has trampled upon the laws of the Church and of the world; and that he has loved vainglory, according to the saying of Scripture, that 'the wicked man is a despiser, even when he is falling into the depth of evils.' "17
And the rest of his letter will be understood from this specimen; how he was the cause of the letters sent by the bishops to the emperor, in which they agreed to the transaction of the Synod. But many senators and citizens, having learned this respecting Anatolius, withdrew from his communion. |76
THE NINTH CHAPTER TELLS ABOUT THE BANISHMENT OF TIMOTHY, AND THE EVENTS WHICH HAPPENED AT HIS DEPARTURE FROM ALEXANDRIA
But, because the king's order respecting the departure of Timothy was sent to Alexandria at this time, the general was consequently much distressed, and felt himself constrained to suffer many things rather than that the city should lose such a priest. However, since he saw the slaughter which was threatened against him by the Proterian party, and especially as the members of that party had taken refuge with the king, and were aided by all the bishops; this same Stilas the general18 thought it well that he and the bishop should betake themselves for refuge to the Baptistery of the great Church. And he did so for two reasons: one was, that they themselves might be preserved from harm; and the other, that they might not be the cause of the loss of life and of slaughter.
But when Timothy had taken refuge at the font of the Baptistery, the clergy of the Proterian party paid no regard either to the priesthood, or to the chastity, or to the age, or to the ascetic life, or to the labours of the man, or indeed to the place where he had taken refuge; but with an armed force, they snatched the chief priest from the very font, and dragged him away. And, as soon as the report of this reached the people, they killed more than ten thousand there to rescue the priest from them. However, after the Romans had slain many of the Alexandrians, the man was taken; and he went out across Egypt to Palestine, that his journey might be along the sea of Phoenice. |77
But when the cities and the inhabitants of Palestine and the seacoast 19 heard it, they came to him to be sanctified, and that the sick among them gain healing for their diseases through the grace of God which was attached to his person; and they snatched torn pieces of stuff from his garments, that they might have them as charms to protect them from evil.
And when he arrived at Berytus, Eustace the bishop urged the citizens there to receive him with public honour.
And he begged Timothy, upon his entry into the city, to pray for it; and the latter stood in the midst of the city and made supplications and prayers to God for it, and blessed it.
But Auxonius, the brother of Eustace, who was at that time an interpreter of the law, acting upon the advice of his brother, spent the whole night with Timothy, speaking earnestly about the faith, and against Nestorius. And during the whole of his long discourse Timothy was a silent listener; but when at length Auxonius, after many words, ceased speaking, Timothy said to him, "Who could persuade me that these three fingers should write upon the paper of Chalcedon?" And, upon hearing this, Auxonius was very sad, and began to weep. Then Timothy, encouraging both him and his brother Eustace, who afterwards joined them, said,
"Attach yourselves to me, and let us contend together for the faith, and let us prevail; so that either we shall recover our bishoprics, or else we shall be driven into banishment by our enemies, and live a sincere life with God." And he alleged as an excuse the dedication of a church, a great temple which Eustace built and named "Anastasia"; and Timothy said, "Shall we wait for the dedication of an earthly temple? But if you obey me, then we shall hold our festival in the heavenly Jerusalem?"
And Timothy received the same kind of honour along the way, until he reached Gangra. |78
THE TENTH CHAPTER EXPLAINS ABOUT ANOTHER TIMOTHY, WHO WAS THE BISHOP OF THE PROTERIAN PARTY, AND WAS CALLED SALOPHACIOLUS
But20 the members of the Proterian party, because of the order of the king and the governors of the cities who were obedient to the command, elected one of themselves, also called Timothy Salophaciolus, and placed him upon the episcopal throne. He was a man who sought popularity; and was soft in his manners and feeble in his actions; as events, indeed, proved.
For when all the people of the city forsook the church, and assembled, along with the believing clergy, in the monasteries, he was neither enraged nor distressed. But when his own clergy were anxious to restrain the people by means of the Roman armed force, he would not allow them.
Now it happened that a certain woman met him carrying her child, who had just been baptized by the believers, and was being borne along in triumph according to the usual custom. And his attendants were very indignant at it. But he ordered them to bring her to him quietly; and he took up the child and kissed him, and he urged the mother to take whatever she wanted. And he said to his own followers,
"Let us and these Christians, each as he thinks right, believe and honour our Lord." Nevertheless, though he did all this, he could not appease the rage of the citizens; and because he dreaded the fate of Proterius, he would not walk abroad without the Romans. And just in proportion as the people loved Timothy the believer, so they hated this man. And they never ceased imploring and entreating the king that Timothy should be restored to them from banishment. |79
But they say of this Salophaciolus that he tried hard to persuade the Alexandrians to hold communion with him; and, as if rejecting the Synod, he wrote in the Diptych the name of Dioscorus. And when Leo of Rome heard it, he excommunicated him.
And on one occasion, when he went up to Constantinople, he had a great dispute with Gennadius, the successor of Anatolius, in the king's presence. And he said, "I do not accept the Synod which would make your see the next in importance to Rome, and cast contempt upon the honour of my see." And the king laughed when he saw them, and heard the two priests contending for the pre-eminence.
And he wrote to tell about this dispute to the bishop of Rome; who at that time replied in writing, that the privileges of each see should be restored according to their original constitution. And he made this known to the king.
So much about this Timothy Salophaciolus.
THE ELEVENTH CHAPTER TELLS HOW TIMOTHY WAS DRIVEN FROM GANGRA TO CHERSON, IN CONSEQUENCE OF THE HATRED WHICH THE PARTY OF CHALCEDON ENTERTAINED AGAINST HIM
But Gennadius of Constantinople and his adherents did not desist from their persecution of Timothy, even when he was in banishment. For they persuaded the king to command his removal from Gangra to Cherson, which is a region inhabited by barbarous and uncivilised men.
But the bishop of Gangra heartily consented to this, on account of the envy which he felt towards the believing, virtuous, and miracle-working Timothy, the friend of the poor; because he used to receive gifts from the believers of Alexandria and Egypt and other places, and to make liberal distribution for the relief of the needy.
And having embarked on board ship, and launched upon |80 the sea, though he was tossed in the midst of the winter, yet he reached Cherson without danger. And when the inhabitants of the country learned the reason, they were filled with admiration for him; and they became followers of his faith, and submitted themselves to his authority.
But the hatred which the Nestorian party entertained against him was caused by his diligence in continually writing reproaches and censures upon the Synod and the Tome, and sending them forth on all sides; thereby encouraging the believers. And he corroborated his words from the Holy Scriptures, and the doctors of the Church, from the time of Christ's preaching even to his own day.
In consequence of these writings, those persons who understood the matter left Gennadius of Constantinople and joined in communion with Acacius the presbyter and Master of the Orphans, the brother of Timocletus the composer, who joined the believers, and strenuously opposed the Nestorians; and he also set verses to music, and they used to sing them. And the people were delighted with them, and they flocked in crowds to the Orphan Hospital.
But the king ordered that the blessed Mary should be proclaimed and written in the book of life as Theotokos, on account of Martyrius of Antioch, who was an avowed Nestorian, and would not now consent to teach these things, who also was deposed.
But Gregory of Nyssa (a believing and virtuous man, the namesake of the learned Gregory) was summoned by the king to put an end to the doctrine of the Nestorians at that time; as some monks went on a mission to the king about the matter of Martyrius. And Gennadius21 had died; and Acacius, the Master of the Orphan Hospital, was appointed as his successor.
And a promise had been made by the latter that he would put an end to the Tome of Leo, and the Synod of Chalcedon, |81 and the innovations and additions which had been imposed upon the faith in it.
THE TWELFTH CHAPTER TELLS ABOUT THE EUTYCHIANISTS, ISAIAH, BISHOP OF HERMOPOLIS, AND THEOPHILUS, A PRESBYTER OF ALEXANDRIA; AND ABOUT THE LETTER WRITTEN BY TIMOTHY RESPECTING THEM, IN WHICH HE EXPOSED THEIR ERRORS
The affairs of the Church of the royal city, indeed, were in the condition described above.
But Timothy, when in banishment, wrote not alone against the Nestorians, but also against the Eutychianists. And this appears from his letters to Alexandria and Palestine, against those who hold the opinions of Eutyches, and do not confess Christ to be of the same nature with us in the flesh as well as of the same Nature with the Father in the Godhead.
And it so happened that the Eutychianists, Isaiah, bishop of Hermopolis, and Theophilus, a presbyter of Alexandria, were sojourning in the royal city with the desire of making money. And they circulated a report that Timothy also was of their way of thinking. And when he heard this he wrote a letter dealing with the doctrines of Eutyches and Nestorius, which he sent to Constantinople signed with his own signature. And when the bearers of this letter became known, they were treated by these men with contempt; and were exposed to danger, because he called the followers of Isaiah "deceivers." Whereupon he sent again another letter respecting them, confirming it by quotations from the fathers. And it was to the following effect:—
THE LETTER OF TIMOTHY
"Our Lord and God, Jesus Christ, in order that He might redeem us and set us free from the dominion of Satan, and |82 make us meet for the blessings of Heaven, appointed for us, through the holy fathers, the law of those things which are pleasing to Himself. And He gave commandment that no man, thinking to honour, should insult the Merciful One; but that He should receive the dispensation for our redemption. And He said, 'Turn not aside to the right hand or to the left, but walk in the way of the kingdom.' 22 And again He said, 'Be not righteous overmuch, nor count thyself too wise, lest thou fall into error. And do not fall deeply into error, nor be stubborn, lest thou die before the time';23 the meaning of which is, lest the evil one should infuse into thee anything contrary to My commandments, and set a stumbling-block for thee on the way of the kingdom along which thou art walking, and slay thee. For he said, 'In the way wherein I walked they laid snares for me.' 24 Take heed, therefore, to thyself, and do not turn aside nor depart from the way of the kingdom. For this is the desire of the evil one, who, if thou shalt fill up much wickedness, will meet thee, and thou wilt fall into danger.
"For, suppose a man seeking to enter a city surrounded by water; if he attempt to pass through on foot he will sink and be drowned in its depth; if, on the other hand, he be afraid to pass over, he cannot enter the city at all; but if there be a convenient ford, and he try to cross over by it, then he can enter the city. In like manner also we being anxious to enter Jerusalem, which is above, if we do not follow the Law of God, which we have learned from the holy doctors, cannot indeed stand upon the rock of our leader Peter Kepho, the true faith. 'For thou shalt indeed be called Kepho, and upon this rock I will build My Church; and the bars of Sheol shall not prevail against it.'25 Let no man be so led astray by the evil one as to imagine that he can subvert the true faith; and if he is contending, it is against his own soul |83 that he contends; but nothing can overcome the faith. And this is the meaning of the expression, 'The bars of Sheol shall not prevail against it.' Wherefore, if any man stand not upon the truth of the faith, but is righteous overmuch, when he thinks to confer honour, he rather offers insult; but if he accept the Law of the Lord, which has been laid down for us by the saints, he survives visions of death and the verge of Sheol. For we have learned that apart from the standard of the faith, we cannot please God.
"These things I have written, because I have heard that some persons are contentious, and are not obedient unto the Law of the Lord which has been laid down for us by the saints; and which declares that our Lord, by His incarnation, was of the same nature with us in the flesh which He took from us, which doctrine they have even rejected if they are not of this mind.
"Accordingly, let no one, thinking to honour God, insult His mercy by refusing to obey the doctrine of the holy fathers, who have declared that our Lord Jesus Christ is of the same nature with us in the flesh, and is one with His flesh. For I have heard also the holy apostle teaching and saying, 'Forasmuch as the children were partakers of the flesh and the blood, He also (partook of the same) in like manner; that by means of death He might destroy the power of death, who is Satan; and might deliver all who were held in the fear of death, and were subject to bondage, that so they might live for ever. For He did not take (the nature) from angels, but He took it from the seed of Abraham. And it was fitting that He should be made in all points like unto His brethren, and that He should be a merciful priest, and faithful with God; and that He should make reconciliation for the sins of the people. For in that He suffered being tempted, He is able to succour them that are tempted.' 26 For this expression, 'He was made like us in all points,' teaches all who desire to be meet for the blessings of heaven and to be redeemed, that they must confess the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ as being from Mary the |84 holy Virgin and Theotokos; Christ Who was of the same nature with her and with us in the flesh, and is of the same Nature with the Father in His Godhead.
"For the fathers anathematised, and we also agreeing with them anathematise in like manner, any who do not hold their doctrines.
"But we have, moreover, in our letter added some quotations from them, attesting the truth of this doctrine :—
"OF ATHANASIUS 27
" 'For this, indeed, the apostle writes expressly, that, "other foundation can no man lay (than that which is laid), even Christ; but let every man take heed how he builds."28 Now it is necessary that a foundation such as this should be in conformity and likeness with those who are built upon it. God the Word, because He is the Word and the only-begotten one, has no peers who could be the sons of the Godhead in the same manner as He. But inasmuch as He became man, of our nature, and clothed Himself with our body, we are of the same nature with Him. Accordingly, in the matter of our humanity He is the foundation; so that we may be precious stones, and be built upon Him, and be a temple for the indwelling of the Holy Spirit.
" 'For, in like manner as He is the foundation and we are the stones built upon Him, so also He is the vine and we are the branches, hanging from Him and in Him; not indeed in the nature of the Godhead, for that would not be possible, but in the manhood. Now it is fitting that the branches should be like the vine, because we also are like Him in that body which He took from us.
" 'And 29 we confess that He is the Son of God, and God in the Spirit, and man in the flesh. And there are not two natures in one Son, one to be worshipped and the other |85 unworthy of worship; but there is one Nature of God the Word, Who became incarnate, and Who, along with the flesh in which He is clothed, is to be worshipped with one worship.'
"OF THE SAME, IN HIS LETTER TO EPICTETUS 30
" 'Now there are many, hiding themselves and blushing, who imagine that, if we affirm the body of our Lord to be from Mary, we introduce a fourth Person into the Trinity; but if we affirm the body to be of the same Nature with the Word, the Trinity thereby remains without the addition of any foreign element. While if we maintain with respect to His body that it is human; then since the body is foreign to the Nature of God, when the Word is in it, there must of necessity be a Quaternity instead of a Trinity, in consequence of the addition of the body.
" 'When they talk in this way they do not consider how their own argument breaks down and fails. For even if they deny the body to be from Mary, they, no less than those who hold a distinct body,31 also seem to hold a Quaternity. For in like manner as the Son is of the same Nature with the Father, and is not the Father but the Son in Person, yet being of the same Nature with the Father; so also, if the body is of the same Nature with the Word, it is not the Word, and since there is another, the Trinity, even according to their showing, is found to be a Quaternity.
" 'But the true, indivisible and perfect Trinity can never receive any addition. What then must be the mind of these persons, and how can they be Christians who hold that there is another besides Him who is God? '
"OF THE SAME, FROM THE SAME LETTER 32
" 'The body of our Redeemer, derived from Mary, was in reality and truth human in nature, because it was like our body; |86 since Mary is our sister, we being all descended from our father Adam.'
"OF JULIUS OF ROME 33
"' And there is no change whatsoever in the Divine Nature, for It is not subject to diminution or increase. And when He says, "Glorify Me," that is the voice of the body, and is spoken concerning the body. For glory was affirmed with respect to His whole Being, for He is all one. And by this the "glory which I had with Thee before the world was," 34 He testified concerning His Godhead that It is always glorified, for such glory properly belongs to It, even though this affirmation was made equally concerning His whole Being. So in the Spirit He is of the same Nature with the Father invisibly; and since the body also was united to Him in His Nature, it is equally included under the name. And again, also, His Godhead is comprehended under the name because It is united to our nature, and the nature of the body is not converted into the nature of God by the union, and conjunction of the name of the nature. Just as the nature of the Godhead was not changed by the conjunction of the human body, and by the appellation of a body of our nature.'
" OF THE SAME, FROM HIS LETTER TO DIONYSIUS 35
" 'They indeed, who confess that the God of heaven became incarnate from the Virgin, and that He being joined to His flesh was one, give themselves needless trouble in contending with the maintainers of the opposite view, who affirm (as I have heard) that there are two natures. Since John proved our Lord to be one by saying, "The Word became flesh."4 And Paul by saying, "There is one Lord Jesus Christ, through Whom are all things." 36 Now, if He Who was born from the Virgin was named Jesus, and He it is through Whom were ail things; He is one nature because He |87 is one Person, Who is not divided into two. For the nature of the body was not separate, nor yet did the Nature of the Godhead remain distinct at the Incarnation; but just as man, composed of body and soul, is one nature, so also He, Who is in the likeness of men, is one Jesus Christ.'
"OF GREGORY THE MIRACLE-WORKER 37
" 'Whosoever says that Christ appeared in the world in phantasy, and does not confess Him to have come in the body, as it is written : let him be accursed.
" 'Whosoever says concerning the body of Christ that it was without soul and without mind, and does not confess His humanity to be perfect, He being the same, according as it is written : let him be accursed.
" 'Whosoever says that Christ took a part of man only, and does not confess Him to have been in all points like as we are, yet without sin : let him be accursed.
" 'Whosoever says that Christ was liable to change and variation, and does not confess Him to be unchanged in Spirit, and uncorrupt in the flesh, as it is written : let him be accursed.
" 'Whosoever says that Christ was perfect man separately (and God the Word separately),38 and does not confess Him to be one Lord Jesus Christ: let him be accursed.
. " 'Whosoever says that there was One Who suffered and Another Who did not suffer, and does not confess God the Word, Himself impassible, to have suffered in His flesh, as it is written : let him be accursed.
" 'Whosoever says that there was One Who existed before the worlds, the Son of God, and another, who at length came into being; and does not confess Him to be the same Who was before the worlds and at length came into being, according as it is written, "Christ yesterday and to-day ": 39 let him be accursed.
" 'Whosoever says that Christ was of the seed of a man in like manner as the rest of mankind, and does not confess Him |88 to have been incarnate, and to have become man, of the Holy Spirit and also of the Virgin Mary, of the seed of the house of David, as it is written : let him be accursed.
" 'Whosoever says that the body of Christ was of the same nature as His Godhead, and does not confess Him to be God before all worlds, Who "emptied Himself and took upon Him the form of a servant," 40 as it is written: let him be accursed.
" 'Whosoever says that the body of Christ was not a created body, and does not confess the uncreated God the Word to have received incarnation and manhood from created man, as it is written : let him be accursed.
" 'For how can one affirm the body of Christ to be uncreated; since that which is not created is not susceptible of suffering, or wounds, or contact. But Christ Himself, after His resurrection from the dead, showed His disciples the prints of the nails and the wound of the spear, and afforded them bodily contact with Himself. And although the doors were shut He entered, that He might display the power of His Godhead and the reality of His body.41 For the flesh which comes into being after lapse of time, cannot be said to be of the same nature with the eternal Godhead. For whatsoever in nature and property is incapable of change is of the same nature.
" 'And42 He is the true incorporeal God who appeared in the flesh, a perfect Being; He is not two persons nor two natures. For we do not worship Four, God, and the Son of God, and a man, and the Holy Spirit; but, on the contrary, we anathematise those who act so wickedly, and who would place man in the glory of God. But we hold that God the Word became man for the sake of our redemption, and that He took our likeness upon Him, and that He who came in our likeness is in His true Nature the Son of God, but in the flesh a man, our Lord Jesus Christ.'43 |89
"OF BASIL OF CAESAREA 44
" 'That which is made is not of the same nature as its maker, but that which is begotten is of the same essence as its begetter. Accordingly, that which is created and that which is born are not one and the same.' And again, 'The children have the same nature as the parent, even though he that was born has come into being in a different fashion. For Abel, who was born as the result of copulation, was in no respect different from Adam who was not born, but was formed.' And again, 'If they who are different in the manner of their creation are different also in their essential being, then men must be unlike one another in nature. For there is one creation of Adam, who was formed out of the earth; and another creation of Eve, who was made from a rib; and another of Abel, who was from copulation; and another of Him Who was from Mary, who was from a virgin alone. And, indeed, the same might be said with respect to birds and beasts.'
"OF GREGORY, HIS BROTHER 45
" 'The nature, indeed, of those who are begotten must of necessity be like their begetters.'
"OF GREGORY OF NAZIANZUM 46
" 'Now these are generally accepted doctrines, that He Who was exalted far above us, for our sake took our qualities upon Him and became man; not that through the body He should thenceforth be limited to the body, for He is not so limited, since His Nature is infinite; but that He might sanctify man by His body He became as leaven to the whole lump, and drew it to Himself. And him who was guilty he released from his guilt. He was, for our sake, in all points like as we are, sin only excepted, in body, soul, mind, |90 of which the ordinary mortal man is composed. He Who manifested Himself was God in respect of His spiritual being, but human in respect of Adam and the Virgin from whom He was derived; from the former as His ancestor, but from the latter who was His mother according to the (natural) law, and who gave Him birth in a manner superior to nature, and not after the (natural) law.'
"OF JULIUS OF ROME 47
" 'But, again, with respect to the dispensation of our Redeemer in the flesh, we believe that God the Word remaining unchanged, became flesh, with the object of renewing mankind. And He, being the true Son of God by the eternal generation, became man by the birth from the Virgin. And He, Who is perfect God in His Godhead of the same Nature with the Father, and also perfect man of the same bodily nature with mankind by birth from the Virgin, is one and the same. But whosoever says that Christ had a body from heaven, or that His body was of His nature: let him be accursed.
" 'Whosoever denies that the flesh of our Lord is from the Virgin, of the same nature as ours : let him be accursed.
" 'Whosoever holds concerning our Lord and Saviour Who was from the Holy Spirit and from Mary the Virgin in the flesh, that He was incomposite and without consciousness, and without reason, and without mind : let him be accursed.
" 'Whosoever shall dare to say with respect to Christ that He suffered in His Godhead, and not in the flesh, as it is written : let him be accursed.
" 'Whosoever would separate and divide our Lord and Saviour, and say that God the Word is one Son, and the man whom He took another, and does not confess Him to be one and the same : let him be accursed.'
"OF JOHN CHRYSOSTOM
" 'He Who transcends all our conceptions and surpasses |91 all our thoughts, and is exalted above angels and above all intelligent powers, was content to become man; and He took flesh, which was formed; from the earth and the clay. And this He did by entering the Virgin's womb, where He was carried for the period of nine months; and after His birth He sucked milk; and indeed He suffered all things pertaining to the human lot. Why48 was He called a Table? Because when I eat the mystery which is upon Him, I am refreshed. Why was He called a House? Because I dwell in Him. Why was He called an Indweller? Because I am His temple. Why was He called a Head? Because I am His member. When 49 He set His love upon a harlot, what did He do? He did not call her up; for He would not bring a harlot up to Heaven. But He came down; as she was not able to ascend to Him, He descended to her. And coming to her hovel, He Himself was not ashamed; and He found her drunk. And how did He come? Not openly in His own Nature; but He became like the harlot herself in nature though not in will; lest, when she saw Him, she might be confounded through terror and flee. He came to her having become man. And how did He become man? He was conceived in the womb, and He grew gradually.'
"OF THE SAME 50
" 'This is the day on which the Eternal One was born and became man, a thing which never took place before, though He did not change from being God, for it was not by a change of the Godhead that He became man; neither from a human original by growth did He become God; but the impassible Word suffered no change in His Nature by becoming flesh. He that is seated upon the throne high and lifted up, was laid in the manger. He that is simple and without body, and cannot be touched, was embraced by human hands. He |92 Who severs the chains of sin, was wrapped in swathing-bands.'
"OF ATHANASIUS 51
" 'If any man teaches doctrine contrary to the Holy Scriptures, and says that the Son of God is One, and he who is man from Mary is another, who became a son by grace as we; so that there would be Two dwelling in the Deity; One, of the same Nature with God, and the other who became so by grace, the man from Mary : and whosoever, further, says that the body of our Lord was from above, and not from the Virgin Mary; or that the Godhead was converted into flesh; or that It was confounded or changed; or that the Godhead of our Lord suffered; or that the body of Christ, inasmuch as it is from men, should not be worshipped, and not that the body is to be worshipped because it is that of our Lord and God;—the man who asserts these things we anathematise, for we obey the apostle when he says,
"Whosoever preaches to you a gospel different from that which we have preached to you, let him be accursed." '52
"OF BISHOP AMBROSE
" 'He is the same Person Who speaks, though not always in the same manner. But He had regard in it at one time to the glory of God, and at another time to the passions of men. As God, He teaches divine things, because He is the Word; and as man, He teaches human things, because He speaks in our nature.'
"OF THEOPHILUS OF ALEXANDRIA 53
" 'The Word, the living God, the Lord of all, and Creator of the worlds, did not clothe Himself in a heavenly |93 body as in some costly substance and come to us, but He displayed in clay the greatness of the skill of His art. For, when He would restore and renew man who was formed from the clay, He was born as man from the Virgin, who, corresponding to us in all points, sin only excepted, and coming into being by a miracle, shone upon us and blessed our human nature.
" 'However, the first man also came into being in a manner different and distinct from us, as the intercourse and association of man and woman did not minister to his creation. And if they allow, in his case, that he was formed out of the earth by the will of God, no parents having ministered to his birth by the conjunction of male and female; why do they quarrel with the Incarnation of our Lord and Saviour, which was from the Virgin? And when they oppose us in this matter, we ask them whether is it easier that a man should come into being from the earth without parents, or that our Saviour Christ should be born from the Virgin, with flesh, and soul, and consciousness? And the first man, indeed, who was from the earth, partook of flesh and blood in all the likeness of humanity; but our Saviour, by His own power, created and prepared from the Virgin a body for Himself with flesh, and blood, and soul, and consciousness. And we confess that He consorted with men, even though in His holy Incarnation the sensual intercourse of man and woman had no part.'
"OF THE SAME54
" 'Now it was not difficult for God the Word to prepare for Himself a temple from the Virgin's body, for the purpose of our redemption. For consider, indeed, that God also is never polluted by natural copulation when He creates man; and how much more then, by His mercy, may He become |94 incarnate from the blood of the Virgin, for the purpose of our redemption.'
" 'So, truly, the Theotokos still remained a virgin after giving birth to Christ by a miracle; and He was partaker, in like manner as we, of flesh and blood, not of His own nature, as the heretics say, but of our nature, according to the saying, "He took the seed of Abraham." ' 55
"OF THE SAME 56
" 'We assert that the body of the Word was His own, and not that of some other man separately and distinctly who is held to be different from Christ the Son. And as the body of each one of us is said to be his own, so also we believe respecting the one Christ. And although He took the body from our race and our nature, because He was born of the Virgin; yet it must be held and declared to be His own body. And, since God the Word is the Life in His own Nature, He declared His body to be a life-giving one. And therefore He became to us a blessing, giving life to all.3 And if it be not so, how then is He like us, while yet remaining as He was before, God the Word? However, grant to Him that in the unity of the Person His body is not separated, and do not denude Him of His flesh. And thus I rightly worship one Son, Who is of the same Nature indeed with the Father in the Godhead, but of the same nature with us in the manhood. And as for those who delight to believe this truth, Christ will enlighten their knowledge also of Himself by His mysteries.'
"OF THE SAME
" 'It is right, indeed, for us to say and believe that God the Word, still remaining of the same Nature with God the Father, was sent and became man, of the same nature with us. |95 He is and He remains as He is, and by becoming man He was not changed. And He was sent to preach deliverance to the captives and light to the blind.'
"OF THE SAME, FROM HIS LETTER TO SUCCENSUS 57
" 'They say, if Christ be perfect God and perfect man, and the same is of the Nature of the Father in the Godhead and of our nature in the manhood, how is He perfect if His human nature is not seen? and how is He of our nature if that actual and self-same nature which is ours be not seen? The answer which we have given at the beginning should suffice to enlighten them. For if, when speaking of one nature of the Word, we refrained from saying "incarnate," rejecting the dispensation, their word would be plausible when they ask, "How can He be perfect in manhood and in Nature?" But since our word indeed testifies that He is perfect in manhood and in Nature by saying that He became flesh, therefore let them cease from these objections, and not lean upon a broken reed.'
"OF THE SAME
" 'In the might, indeed, of His Godhead He took the hand of the daughter of Jairus, saying, "Maid, arise." 58 And He did not give the command in word merely, and the work was accomplished according to His own will. But59 that we might believe that His holy body was of the same nature with our bodies, while it also was glorious, and divine, and raised above our measure, it being also His own, He wrought in it. For which reason, also, He called His own body the "Bread of Life."' 60
"And so these fathers and holy men like them have with |96 one consent anathematised every man who is not obedient to their doctrine.
"And I have written to Alexandria, to the clergy, to the monks, to the sisters the virgins in Christ, and to the believing people; and I have sent the letter to you, my dear friends; and that ye may know what I have written, I, Timothy, have marked the salutation with my own handwriting.
"Whosoever does not believe in the doctrine of the holy fathers, in accordance with the tradition of our Lord Jesus Christ: let him be accursed. For it is right for each one of us either to stand fast in the faith and to live in it, or else to die on behalf of it, and to live for evermore.
"My brother Anatolius the presbyter, and Theophilus, and Cyrus, and Christodorus, and Gennadius the deacons, and the members of the brotherhood who are with me, send you their greeting."
The foregoing letter, with the quotations appended thereto, we have written down here. By reading and considering it, lovers of the doctrine will find in it a sufficient refutation of the notion of Nestorius, who holds that there are two Natures in the unity of Christ; and also of the teaching of Eutyches, who does not confess that God the Word became perfect Man, and remained without change God the Word, One Person who became flesh.
And, besides this letter, we have subjoined another explaining the right method of reception in the case of those who repent and turn from heresy.
THE LETTER OF TIMOTHY WHICH HE WROTE TO ALEXANDRIA, AND BY WHICH HE CUT OFF ISAIAH AND THEOPHILUS FROM COMMUNION WITH THE BELIEVERS
"Timothy to the God-loving bishops, and presbyters, and deacons, and archimandrites, and sisters, and faithful people in the Lord, greeting—
"Inasmuch as Isaiah and Theophilus have been for a long time heretics in secret, whom I admonished by letter, urging |97 them to agree to the holy doctrine of the fathers, and they have not been obedient to the letters which I wrote to them to Constantinople, containing proofs from Scripture, and the doctors of the Church, that our Lord Jesus Christ was of the same nature with us in the body; and furthermore they have shown no respect for my sufferings in being banished from place to place, but have behaved treacherously towards the bearers of my letter, and also informed the prefects against them, and they stirred up others, saying, 'It is a forgery,' even though they knew my signature which was on the letter. And I waited a considerable time for them though I knew their disposition, and they made no reply, either by word of mouth or in writing. And upon reflection, I thought it right to send them another letter; so I wrote urging them to come and confess the true faith. And in my admonition I reminded them that God does not condemn nor reject those who repent. And I cited the examples of holy men who sinned and denied the Lord, but who afterwards repented; and God accepted their repentance, and accounted them worthy of their former dignity; such was the case of David, and Peter, and Paul.
"And I wrote to them that in like manner, if they would repent and confess the body of Christ to be of the same nature as ours, I would continue to entertain my old esteem and love for them; and I would maintain them in the honour of their rank. And they showed no affection for me, but treated me with contempt.
"And after this I waited four years more for them, without exposing them by name. And they still persevered in their disobedience, and showed no sign of repentance, and they neither received the doctrine of the holy fathers nor me. And they associated with some heretics who openly deny that our Lord took a human body, and that He became perfect man from us. And they creep into houses, and greedily grasp at gain, which they hold as their god, while they are sojourning in the royal city. And I wrote to them that they should |98 depart from it, but they would not. And they continued to lead simple folk astray, and to circulate other rumours respecting me, with the object of doing me great harm. And being distressed and saddened by them, I was compelled to excommunicate them by their names lest they should cause many to stumble and err.
"And I now give sentence upon Isaiah and Theophilus, who say that the body of the Lord is of His own divine Nature, and not of ours, and who deny His true humanity, thereby cutting themselves off from the fellowship of the holy fathers and mine; that no man henceforth hold communion with them. For John the evangelist commands, saying, 'My brethren, believe not every spirit, but try the spirits whether they be of God; for indeed, many false prophets have appeared in the world. And hereby the spirit which is from God is known, every spirit which confesses that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of God, and every spirit which does not confess Jesus is not from God. And this is the spirit of the false Christ. Because many deceivers have gone forth into the world, who do not confess Jesus Christ to have come in the flesh; this is a deceiver and a false Christ.'61 And again, 'If any man comes to you not preaching this doctrine, do not either receive him into the house or greet him, for he that greets him is partaker with his evil deeds.' 62 And because of the apostle who says, 'Whosoever preaches to you a gospel different from what we have preached to you, let him be accursed.'63
"I am clear from their blood and from that of their associates; for I have not ceased to show them, according to the will of God, what is for their good. For Paul further exhorts us, saying, 'After thou hast warned an heretic once or twice, and he has refused thine admonition, avoid him; since by continuing in his sin he is corrupted and guilty.'64 But the blessed Dioscorus the Confessor wrote sentiments agreeable to these of the holy fathers, and after the same manner, in his letter to Secundinus." . . . And the letter goes on to say, "Now, I beseech you, brethren, by the |99 Lord Jesus Christ, and by the love of the Spirit, concerning those who repent and turn from the heresy of the Diphysites, as I wrote in a letter a year ago, that you, the bishops, and clergy, and other believers, all who are subject to you, help them, and extend the hand to them in the Lord.
"And when anyone is converted let him have one year of repentance, and after that let him be established in his former rank, and his dignity be restored to him. And if there be no believing bishop, let the clergy or the believing bishops, who from any cause happen to be in the country, fill the place in the love of God, even though those who repent are not subject to them in jurisdiction.
"This same order and regulation Cyril and Dioscorus observed of one year's repentance for bishops, presbyters, and deacons; after which they should be established in their former rank.
"Pray for me that God may help me in this conflict; the Lord be with you. Amen!"
Such letters he wrote advising them how they should receive converts from the Proterian party.
And he became so celebrated, even with the people of India, that when their bishop died they, being of the same faith with him, sent a request to him that he would appoint a bishop for them.
But, indeed, the Alexandrians never ceased sending petitions and supplications to the king on his behalf, time after time, and stirring up popular tumult for him. For as soon as they heard of the death of Leo and the succession of Basiliscus, they sent a deputation of certain chosen monks, Paul the Sophist, and James, and Theopompus.
But the chief priests who held office from the Council of Chalcedon until the time of Basiliscus, and the encyclical |100 letters which he and Marcus, wrote, and up to the reign of Zeno, who became emperor, are as follows:—
Of Rome, Leo, and his successor Hilary.
Of Alexandria, Proterius, who was killed. And his successor was Timothy the Great, who was banished. And until he returned by means of the Encyclicals, they appointed another Timothy, called Salophaciolus.
In Constantinople, Anatolius, and his successor Gennadius, who was succeeded by Acacius.
In Ephesus, John, who took the place of Bassian; and Paul, who was banished, and who returned by means of the Encyclicals, but was banished again.
In Antioch, Domnus, and his successor was Maximus, and then Martyrius, who was driven out; and after him Julian, who was succeeded by Stephen; and then another Stephen, who was driven out; and Peter, who returned from banishment two or three times.
And in Jerusalem, Juvenalis, and Anastasius his successor.
Now King Leo the emperor died, and there arose after him Basiliscus, and Marcus, and Zeno, who had retired for a little time to the strongholds of Salmon; but he afterwards returned and became emperor, and Basiliscus and Marcus were driven out.
[Note to the online edition: footnotes have been moved to the end. Footnotes concerned only with bits of Syriac and Greek have been omitted because of the time it would take to transcribe it.]
1. 1 Or, "being, so far as it goes, drawn from," etc. This maybe an intimation that our Syriac text is a compilation of extracts from the original Greek.
2. 2 Evag. ii. 8 ; Liberat. 15.
3. 4 I.e. Upper Egypt, see Evag.
4. 2 ... the name was taken to mean "Tomb of Osiris" (Brooks).
5. 3 Evag. ii. 8 ; Liberat. 15.
6. 2 Liberat. 15; Evag. ii. 9.
7. 1 Evag. ii. 10.
8. 1 Matt. xxviii. 19.
9. 2 Migne, Patr. Graec, vi. p. 274.
10. 4 Matt. xxii. 29.
11. 3 See bk. 7, ch. 10.
12. 5 Mansi, vol. vii. p. 539 ff.
13. 1 Leo, Ep. 156, ch. ii.
14. 2 Evag. ii. 10.
15. 5 Evag. ii. 11.
16. 1 Mansi, vol. vii. p. 537.
17. 3 Prov. xviii. 3 (LXX).
18. 5 Liberat. 15 and 16.
19. 1 ... i.e. ... the province of Phoenice Maritima.
20. 2 Liberat. 16.
21. 3 Evag. ii. 11.
22. 1 Num. xx. 17; Prov. iv. 27.
23. 2 A free quotation from Eccles. vii. 16-18.
24. 4 Ps. cxlii. (Syr. cxli.) 3.
25. 8 John i. 42; Matt. xvi. 18.
26. 3 Heb. ii. 14-18.
27. 1 Orat. ii., contra Arian. 74.
28. 3 1 Cor. iii. 11, 12.
29. 4 De Incarn. Dei Verbi (Migne, Patr. Graec. vol. xxviii. p. 25).
30. 1 Athan. ad Epict. 8, 9.
31. 3 This is the best I can make of it, the text may be corrupt.
32. 4 Ibid. 7.
33. 1 Migne, Patr. Lat. vol. viii. p. 874.
34. 2 John xvii. 5.
35. 3 Migne, Patr. Lat, vol. viii. p. 929. 4 John i. 14.
36. 5 1 Cor. vi. 8.
37. 1 Migne, Patr. Graec. vol. x. p. 1128ff.
38. 4 Supplied from the Greek.
39. 5 Heb. xiii. 8. This quotation is not in the Greek.
40. 1 Phil. ii. 7.
41. 2 Luke xxiv. 36-43; John xx. 19-27.
42. 4 Migne, Patr: Graec. vol. x. p. 1117. Here Mich. has "OF THE SAME."
43. 5 This is only an attempt at translating the sentence; a comparison with the Greek shows that the text is corrupt.
44. 1 Migne, Patr. Graec, vol. xxix. pp. 673, 680, 681.
45. 2 Ibid. vol. xlv. p. 601.
46. 3 The source of this quotation we are not able to find.
47. 1 Not in any of the extant works of Pseudo-Julius.
48. 2 De Capt. Eutrop. 8. Here, and at the beginning of the next quotation, Mich. has "OF THE SAME," which must therefore have dropped out of our text (Brooks).
49. 3 Ibid. 11.
50. 4 This quotation does not occur in either of the extant sermons on the Nativity.
51. 1 Migne, Patr. Graec. vol. xxviii. p. 28.
52. 3.Gal. i. 8, 9.
53. 4 Sixth Paschal Letter, Migne, Patr. Grac. vol. lxv. p. 60.
54. 3 This and the latter part of the preceding are probably from the lost part of the fifth Paschal Letter.
55. 1 Heb. ii. 16.
56. 2 Migne, Patr. Graec. vol. lxxvi. p. 372. 3 The rest is not in the Greek. Mich. has "OF THE SAME," which must therefore have dropped out of our text (Brooks).
57. 1 Cyr. Ep. 46. 3.
58. 4 Mark v. 41.
59. 7 Pusey's Libr. of the Fathers (Cyr. 5 Tomes, p. 368); cf. Migne, Patr. Graec. 76, p. 1429, where, however, the extract begins after this sentence.
60. 8 John vi. 48.
61. 2 I John iv. 1-3; 2 John 7.
62. 3 2 John 10, 11.
63. 4 Gal. i. 8.
64. 5 Tit. iii. 10, 11.
This text was transcribed by Roger Pearse, 2002. All material on this page is in the public domain - copy freely.
Greek text is rendered using the Scholars Press SPIonic font, free from here.
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