31 Of Beroea, vide page 128.

32 i.e. of Cyrus, cf. p. 134.

33 For fragments of his writings vide Dial. i. and iii.

34 Gal. vi. 17.

35 I. Cor. iv. 8.

36 Ps. lv. 6.

37 upostasesi.

38 proswpoij.

39 Acts xi, 26.

40 Vide note on p. 53.

41 I. Cor. i. 12.

42 This rendering seems the sense of the somewhat awkward Greek of the text, and obviates the necessity of adopting Valesius' conjecture that the "nobis" of the original Latin had been altered by a clerical error into "vobis." If we read nobis, we may translate "you shew it in no niggard measure to ourselves."

43 Gal. i. 8.

44 Photinus, the disciple of Marcellus of Ancyra, was condemned at the synod of Sirmium in 349. Dict. Christ. Ant. ("Sirmium, Councils of.") Sulpicius Severus writes (II. 52) "Photinus vero novam haeresim jam ante protulerat, a Sabellio quidem in unione dissentiens, sed intium Christi ex Maria praedicabat."

45 Vide note on Apollinarius, p. 132.

46 John iii. 13.

47 Phil. ii. 7.

48 Coloss. i. 18. Rev. i. 5.

49 Valesius supposes the Greek translator to have read Deum verbum for Deum vernum, which is found in Col. Rom., and which I have followed.

50 Latin, "Omnia quae sunt salvanda salvantes."

51 Qeon ena en trisin ipostasesin. The last three words are wanting in the Latin version.

52 Gratianus made himself unpopular (i) by his excessive adiction to sport, playing the Commodus in the "Vivaria," when not even a Marcus Aurelius could have answered all the calls of the Empire. (Amm. xxxi. x. 19) and (ii) by affecting the society and customs of barbarians (Aur. Vict. xlvii. 6). The troops in Britain rose against him, gathered aid in the Low Countries, and defeated him near Paris. He fled to Lyons, where he was treacherously assassinated Aug. 25, 383. He was only twenty-four. (Soc. v. II.)

53 Valentinianus II., son of Valentinianus I. and Justina was born c. 371.

54 Magnus Maximus reigned from 383 to 388. Like Theodosius, he was a Spaniard.

55 Justina, left widow by Magnentius in 353, was married to Valentinian I. (we may dismiss the story of Socrates (iv. 31) that he legalized bigamy in order to marry her in the lifetime of Severa) probably in 368. Her first conflict with Ambrose was probably in 380 at Sirmium. On the murder of Gratian in 383 Maximus for four years left the young Valentinian in possession of Italy, in deference to the pleading of Ambrose. It was during this period, at Easter, 385, that Justina ungratefully attacked the bishop and demanded a church for Arian worship.

56 This contest is described by Ambrose himself in letters to Valentinian and to his sister Marcellina, Epp. xx. xxi, and in the "Sermo de basilicis tradendis." On the apparent error of Gibbon in confusing the "vela" which were hung outside a building to mark it as claimed for the imperial property, with the state hangings of the emperor's seat inside, vide Dict. Christ. Biog. i. 95.

57 After Easter, 387.

58 The motives here stated seem to have had little to do with the march of Maximus over the Alps. Indeed so far from enthusiasm for Ambrose and the Ambrosian view of the faith being conspicuous in the invader, he had received the bishop at Treves as envoy from Valentinina, had refused to be diverted from his purpose, and had moveover taken offence at the objection of Ambrose to communicate with the bishops who had been concerned in the first capital punishment of a heretic - i.e. Priscillian.

59 Valentinian and his mother fled to Thessalonica.

60 Zosimus (iv. 44) represents Theodosius, now for two years widowed, as won over to the cause of Valentinian by the loveliness of the young princess Galla, whom he married.

"He was some time in preparing for the campaign, but, when it was opened, he conducted it with vigour and decision. His troops passed up the Save Valley, defeated those of Maximus in two engagements, entered Aemona (Laybach) in triumph, and soon stood before the walls of Aquileia, behind which Maximus was sheltering himself. ...The soldiers of Theodosius poured into the city, of which the gates had been opened to them by the mutineers, and dragged off the usurper, barefooted, with tied hands, in slave's attire, to the tribunal of Theodosius and his young brother in law at the third milestone from the city. After Theodosius had in a short harangue reproached him with the evil deeds which he had wrought against the Roman Commonwealth, he handed him over to the executioner." Hodgkin, "Dynasty of Theodosius," p. 127.

61 Arcadius was declared Augustus early in 383 (Clinton Fast. Rome, I. p. 504). Theodosius issued his edict against the heretics in September of same year. Sozomen (7. 6) tells the story of an anonymous old man, priest of an obscure city, simple and unworldly; "this," remarks Bishop Lightfoot (Dic. Christ. Biog. i. 106), "is as unlike Amphilochius as it can possibly be."

62 "agreuwn." cf. Mark xii. 13.

63 "Irasci sane rebus indignis, sed flecti cito." Aur. Vict. xlviii.

64 "Botheric, the Gothic general, shut up in prison a certain scoundrel of a charioteer who had vilely insulted him. At the next races the mob of Thessalonica tumultuously demanded the charioteer's liberation and when Botheric refused rose in insurrection and slew both him and several magistrates of the City." Hodgkin 121. This was in 390.