49 Colluthus formed & schism on the doctrine that God was not the cause of any sort of evil, e.g. did not inflict pain and suffering. Though a Priest, he took on himself to ordain, even to the Priesthood [§12]. St. Alexander even seems to imply that he did so for money. Theod. H.E. i. 3. [Prolegg. ch. ii. §2.]

50 [Ath. had refused to attend a synod at Caesarea, a.d. 334. See Thdt. H.E. i. 28, Prolegg. ch. ii. §4. and D.C.B. ii. 315 b.]

51 Cf. Euseb. v. Const. ii. 48.

52 Cf. §16.

53 Cf. §§17, 65, 70.

54 At Tyre.

55 Perhaps president of the Council, cf. §20. [But see Prolegg. ch. ii. §5.]

56 i.e. my beloved lord.

57 Jer. ix. 2.

58 Acts xxiv. 18, Acts xxiv. 19.

59 Acts xxv. 16.

60 Vid. §46.

61 Vid. Encyc. §???, p. 43, note 2.

62 Vid. de Syn. §21.

63 [i.e. Church, see D.C.A. s.v. Martyrium.]

64 That Chorepiscopi were real Bishops, vid. Bevereg. in Conc. Ancyr. Can. 13. Routh in Conc. Neocaes. Can. 13. referring to Rhabanus Maurus. Thomassin on the other hand denies that they were Bishops, Discipl. Eccl. i. 2. c. 1. [see D.C.A. s.v.]

65 Ten under each Presbyter. Vales ad Socr. Hist. i. 27. Ten altogether, Montfaucon in loc. with more probability; and so Tillemont, vol. 8. p. 20. [Six tillages are mentioned supr. §64, fin.]

66 It was against the Canon of Sardica, and doubtless against ancient usage, to ordain a Bishop for so small a village, vid. Bingham, Antiqu. II. xii., who, however, maintains by instances, that at least small towns might be sees. Also it was against usage that a layman, as Ischyras, should be made a Bishop. ibid. x. 4, &c. St. Hilary, however, makes him a Deacon. Fragm. ii. 16.

67 Dogs without owners, and almost in a wild state, abound, as is well known, in Eastern cities; vid. Psalm lix. 6, Psalm lix. 14, Psalm lix. 15. 2 Kings ix. 35, 2 Kings ix. 36. and for the view taken in Scripture of dogs, vid. Bochart, Hieroz. ii. 56 [and Dict. Bib. s.v.].

68 Catholicus, §14, Apol. Const. §10. [The mention, below, of `Augusti and Caesars' makes 337 the earliest likely date for this letter.]

69 Cf. §17. note 7 [Prolegg. ch. ii. §4.]

70 Cf. §9.

71 Euseb. v. Const. ii. 48.

72 stratopedon, §70. note 6.

73 "Once in an entertainment, at which he (Constantine) received Bishops, he made the remark that he too was a Bishop; using pretty much these words in my hearing, 'You are Bishops of matters within the Church, I am appointed by God to be Bishop of matters external to it." Euseb. Vit. Const. iv. 23.

74 Constantinople.

75 [See Bright, Hist. Writ. p. xii. note 3, and on the date of this letter, Prolegg. ch. v. §3 b, and note 6 below.]

76 June 17. a.d. 337 [see Gwatk. Stud., 136].

77 ephkouse gar aplwj. Montfaucon In Onomast. (Athan. t. 2. ad calc.) points out some passages in his author, where epakouein, like upakouein, means "to answer." vid. Apol. Const. §16 init. Orat. iii. 27 fin.

78 Cf. §58.

79 Here ends the second part of the Apology, as is evident by turning back to §58. (supr. p. 130) to which this paragraph is an allusion. The express object of the second part was to prove, what has now been proved by documents, that Valens and Ursacius did but succumb to plain facts which they could not resist. It is observable too from this passage that the Apology was written before their relapse, i.e. before a.d. 351 or 352. The remaining two sections are often after 357, as they mention the fall of Liberius and Hosius, and speak of Constantius in different language from any which has been found above. Introd. to Apol. Const. and Hist. Ar.]

80 See Hist. Ar. §41.

81 Cf. Apol. Fug.; §5, and Hist. Ar. §45.

82 Ecclus. iv. 28.

1 eusebeia, asebeia, &c., here translated "religion, irreligion, religious, &c. &c." are technical words throughout, being taken from S. Paul's text, "Great is the mystery of godliness," eusebeiaj, i.e. orthodoxy. Such too seems to be the meaning of "godly admonitions," and "godly judgments," and "this godly and well-learned man," in our Ordination Services. The Latin translation is "pius," "pietas." It might be in some respects suitably rendered by "devout" and its derivatives. On its familiar use in the controversy depends the blasphemous jest of Eudoxius, Arian Bishop of Constantinople, which was received with loud laughter in the Cathedral, and remained in esteem down to Socrates' day, "The Father is asebhj, as being without devotion, the Son eusebhz, devout, as paying devotion to the Father." Socr. Hist. ii. 43. Hence Arius ends his Letter to Eusebius with alhqwj eusebia. Theod. Hist. i. 4.

2 It appears that the Arians did not venture to speak disrespectfully of the definition of the Council till the date (a.d. 352) of this work, when Acacius headed them. Yet the plea here used, the unscriptural character of its symbol, had been suggested to Constantius on his accession, a.d. 337, by the Arian priest, the favourite of Constantia, to whom Constantine had entrusted his will, Theod. Hist. ii. 3; and Eusebius of Caesarea glances at it, at the time of the Council, in the letter to his Church, which is subjoined to this Treatise.

3 Alexander also calls them chameleons, Socr. i. 6. p. 12. Athanasius so calls the Meletians, Hist. Arian. §79. Cyril compares them to "the leopard which cannot change his spots." Dial. ii. init. t. v. i. Aub., Naz. Or. 28. 2. On the fickleness of the Arians, vid. infra, §4. &c. Orat. ii. 40. He says, ad Ep. Aeg. 6. that they considered Creeds as yearly covenants; and de Synod. §3. 4. as State Edicts. vid. also §14. and passim. "What wonder that they fight against their fathers, when they fight against themselves?" §37.

4 Ps. ii. 1.

5 epixeirhma. and so Orat. i. §44. init. but infra. §25. epixeirhmata means more definitely reasonings or argumentations.